Parrot M.,French National Center for Scientific Research |
Berthelier J.J.,LATMOS IPSL UVSQ |
Blecki J.,CBK |
Brochot J.Y.,French National Center for Scientific Research |
And 11 more authors.
Surveys in Geophysics | Year: 2015
DEMETER was a low Earth orbiting microsatellite in operation between July 2004 and December 2010. Its scientific objective was the study of ionospheric perturbations in relation to seismic activity and man-made activities. Its payload was designed to measure electromagnetic waves over a large frequency range as well as ionospheric plasma parameters (electron and ion densities, fluxes of energetic charged particles). This paper will show both expected and unusual events recorded by the satellite when it was in operation. These latter events have been selected from the DEMETER database because they are rare or even have never been observed before, because they have a very high intensity, or because they are related to abnormalities of the experiments under particular plasma conditions. Some events are related to man-made radio waves emitted by VLF ground-based transmitters or power line harmonic radiation. Natural waves, such as atypical quasi-periodic emissions or uncommon whistlers, are also shown. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Stein T.H.M.,University of Reading |
Parker D.J.,University of Leeds |
Delanoe J.,LATMOS IPSL UVSQ |
Dixon N.S.,University of Leeds |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2011
The West African summer monsoon (WAM) is an important driver of the global climate and locally provides most of the annual rainfall. A solid climatological knowledge of the complex vertical cloud structure is invaluable to forecasters and modelers to improve the understanding of the WAM. In this paper, 4 years of data from the CloudSat profiling radar and CALIPSO are used to create a composite zonal mean vertical cloud and precipitation structure for the WAM. For the first time, the near-coincident vertical radar and lidar profiles allow for the identification of individual cloud types from optically thin cirrus and shallow cumulus to congestus and deep convection. A clear diurnal signal in zonal mean cloud structure is observed for the WAM, with deep convective activity enhanced at night producing extensive anvil and cirrus, while daytime observations show more shallow cloud and congestus. A layer of altocumulus is frequently observed over the Sahara at night and day, extending southward to the coastline, and the majority of this cloud is shown to contain supercooled liquid in the top. The occurrence of deep convective systems and congestus in relation to the position of the African easterly jet is studied, but only the daytime cumulonimbus distribution indicates some influence of the jet position. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.
Savoini P.,Laboratory for Plasma Physics Brusells |
Lembge B.,LATMOS IPSL UVSQ |
Stienlet J.,Laboratory for Plasma Physics Brusells
Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics | Year: 2010
The foreshock region is populated by energetic backstreaming particles (electrons and ions) issued from the shock after having interacted with it. Several aspects concerning the origin of these high-energy particles and their corresponding acceleration mechanisms are still unresolved. The present study is focused on a quasi-perpendicular curved shock and associated electron foreshock region (i.e., for 90 $\theta$Bn 45, where $\theta$Bn is the angle between the shock normal and the upstream magnetostatic field). Two-dimensional full-particle simulation is used in order to include self-consistently the electron and ion dynamics, the full dynamics of the shock, the curvature effects and the time-of-flight effects. All expected salient features of the bow shock are recovered both for particles and for electromagnetic fields. Present simulations evidence that the fast-Fermi acceleration (magnetic mirror) mechanism, which is commonly accepted, is certainly not the unique process responsible for the formation of energetic backstreaming electrons. Other mechanisms also contribute. More precisely, three different classes of backstreaming electrons are identified according to their individual penetration depth within the shock front: (i) "magnetic mirrored" electrons which only suffer a specular reflection at the front, (ii) "trapped" electrons which succeed to penetrate the overshoot region and suffer a local trapping within the parallel electrostatic potential at the overshoot, and (iii) "leaked" electrons which penetrate even much deeper into the downstream region. "Trapped" and "leaked" electrons succeed to find appropriate conditions to escape from the shock and to be reinjected back upstream. All these different types of electrons contribute together to the formation of energetic field-aligned beam. The acceleration mechanisms associated to each electron class and/or escape conditions are analyzed and discussed. Copyright © 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.