Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences
Buenos Aires, Argentina

The Latin American Social science Institute or Latin American School of Social science is an inter-governmental autonomous organization for Latin America and the Caribbean dedicated to research, teaching and spreading of social science.It was created on April 17, 1957, following a UNESCO initiative at the Latin American Conference on Social science in Rio de Janeiro. Its membership is open to Latin American and Caribbean countries that subscribe the FLACSO agreement. Current members include: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Cuba, Chile, Ecuador, Honduras, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Dominican Republic and Suriname. Wikipedia.

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De Andrade L.O.M.,Oswaldo Cruz Foundation | Filho A.P.,Oswaldo Cruz Foundation | Solar O.,Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences | Rigoli F.,Pan American Health Organization | And 5 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2015

Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: SSH-2007-8.0-02 | Award Amount: 777.52K | Year: 2008

The EULAKS project is premised on the assumption that by providing in-depth insights into socio-economic and policy development processes of other regions the Socio-Economic Sciences and Humanities (SSH) can make a valuable contribution to meeting the EUs ambitious challenges as set out by the Lisbon and Gothenburg Summits, particularly in the context of the opening of the European Research Area (ERA) to third countries and regions. The project is aimed at raising the profile of SSH research activities and networks in Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries in order to make sure that the ERA can fully benefit from key contributions that substantially improve the understanding of the changing socio-economic dynamics of the Information and Knowledge Society in both regions. A principal goal of the project is the creation of a space for horizontal learning between communities of SSH scholars and communities of relevant stakeholders and policy-makers. To attain this goal, the project will connect European and Latin American and Caribbean communities of scholars, research organisations and key agencies from a broad rage of SSH disciplines that vary in their research focus and methodological preference yet have made significant contributions to the building of a shared understanding of the Knowledge Society. EULAKS attaches priority to the promotion of the shared EU-LAC Knowledge Area through the support for the forging of close bi-regional ties between SSH research communities with a focus on the design, implementation and monitoring of science, technology and innovation (STI) policies.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SSH-2010-4.1-1 | Award Amount: 10.16M | Year: 2011

GREEN will study the current and future role of the EU in an emerging multi-polar world through a programme of stock-taking, multi-disciplinary research and complementary activities. It aims at an understanding of the prospective directions of the emerging global governance structures and Europes place in them. Analysis will focus on the extant actors from the 20th century, the 21st century rising powers, the increasingly influential non-state actors (from civil and non-civil society) and the new transnational regulatory networks of public and private policy makers and regional agencies. While multi-polarity, with Europe as a pole, is a possibility, alternative scenarios are also plausible. A shift from a trans-Atlantic to trans-Pacific locus of power, or the depolarization and fragmentation of authority are such alternatives; both could marginalize Europe. But these are questions to be researched; not assertions to be made. The project will have 5 components: i) conceptual analyses of an emerging multi-polar world and the theory and practice of international organisation and networks in that world; ii) evolving EU policy and practice; iii) the effects of regional leadership from Africa, Asia-Pacific and the Americas; iv) projects on the EU and multi-polarity within the fields of human rights and security, energy, resources and environment, trade and finance; v) a foresight study detailing scenarios for EU policy towards the emerging world order. The research will be theoretical, policy-oriented and with an interactive dissemination strategy to assure feedback from its target-publics. The work will be undertaken by a manageable consortium of partners (from Belgium, UK, Netherlands, Denmark, Hungary, Spain, Italy and Norway with a strong track-record of collaboration on these issues) accompanied by leading institutes from the USA, Argentina, Singapore, China, Japan, Australia and South Africa to act as hub-and-spokes for their regions.

Luna F.,Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences | Vanderpoel S.,KK Womens and Childrens Hospital
Bioethics | Year: 2013

This paper challenges the traditional account of vulnerability in healthcare which conceptualizes vulnerability as a list of identifiable subpopulations. This list of 'usual suspects', focusing on groups from lower resource settings, is a narrow account of vulnerability. In this article we argue that in certain circumstances middle-class individuals can be also rendered vulnerable. We propose a relational and layered account of vulnerability and explore this concept using the case study of cord blood (CB) banking. In the first section, two different approaches to 'vulnerability' are contrasted: categorical versus layered. In the second section, we describe CB banking and present a case study of CB banking in Argentina. We examine the types of pressure that middle-class pregnant women feel when considering CB collection and storage. In section three, we use the CB banking case study to critique the categorical approach to vulnerability: this model is unable to account for the ways in which these women are vulnerable. A layered account of vulnerability identifies several ways in which middle-class women are vulnerable. Finally, by utilizing the layered approach, this paper suggests how public health policies could be designed to overcome vulnerabilities. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Fontaine G.,Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

This article addresses the consequences of different modes of energy governance on the energy matrix. Energy governance is understood as a regulation system of the energy related interplays between the State, the society and the economy. The energy matrix is a useful instrument for comparative policy analysis, since it informs us about production and consumption trends, by sources and sectors. Our central argument is that energy governance follows two different patterns, one hierarchical and the other cooperative, that are not necessarily determined by the initial factors allocation, and produce different effects on the energy matrix. Hierarchical governance is based on centralized decision-making and State-centered development, while co-governance is based on decentralized decision-making and market-oriented development. To develop this argument, we compare the energy matrix from the five Andean countries (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia). © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Martinez Valle L.,Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences
Journal of Agrarian Change | Year: 2016

The consolidation of capitalist agriculture in countries such as Ecuador has led to a recent revaluation of territories (central highlands) where cheap labour has facilitated agribusiness development linked to the world market. This process generates growth in the numbers of rural wage workers and the creation of a labour market that, in relation to others in several Latin American countries, has certain particularities: permanent jobs, gender balance, an absence of intermediaries and low levels of precariousness. Small-scale peasant producers are marginalized in this context and play functional roles within the current dynamics of agribusiness firms. The organizational weakness of rural wage earners and the pursuit of clientelist relationships by firms do not allow rural workers and local communities to devise economic and social strategies that might improve their position in this 'field of forces' in the territory. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Cuvi N.,Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences
Dynamis | Year: 2011

During World War II, the United States implemented programs to exploit hundreds of raw materials in Latin America, many of them botanical. This required the participation of the country's scientific community and marked the beginning of intervention in Latin American countries characterized by the active participation of the United States in negotiations (and not only by private firms supported by the U.S.). To this end, many federal institutions and companies were created, others were adapted, and universities, research centres and pharmaceutical companies were contracted. The programmes un-dertaken by this coalition of institutions served to build and consolidate the dependence of Latin American countries on United States technology, to focus their economies on the extraction and development of resources that the United States could not obtain at home (known as complementary) and to impede the development of competition. Latin American republics had been historically dependant on raw material exports (minerals and plants). However, during World War li, their dependence on US loans, markets, science and technology reached record levels. One example of this can be appreciated through a careful examination of the Cinchona Programme, implemented in the 1940s by US agencies In Latin America. This program for the extraction of a single medicinal plant, apart from representing a new model of scientific Imperialism (subsequently renamed scientiflc cooperation) was the most intensive and extensive scientific exploration of a single medicinal plant in the history of mankind.

Casillas R.,Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences
Globalizations | Year: 2011

This study explores what happens to migrants from Central America to the US during their journey through Mexico. It traces the ways in which the negative interaction of undocumented immigrants with restrictive North American policies for international immigration and their dealings with international companies providing remittances, along with the evolution of criminal networks on a national scale, increase the vulnerability of these immigrants. The resulting scenario is one marked by systemic risks, a slow process of development that has now reached worrisome levels, and gaps in national governability of the immigration processes under study that exist from the outset and have been filled by a variety of social agents. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Vallejo M.C.,Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences
Ecological Economics | Year: 2010

At the core of this paper lays the notion that a systematic analysis of material flow accounts enables us to discuss the sustainability of an economic model. Ecuador is going through a socio-ecological transition from an agrarian towards an industrial regime, based on the use of nonrenewable sources of materials and energy. Direct material flow indicators are used in this article to analyze the ecological dimension of the economy of Ecuador during 1970-2007. This approach enables the concept of societal metabolism to become operative. The paper compares societal metabolic profiles showing that per capita use of materials is still at about one-fifth of the average in the high income countries of the world. Physical flows of trade indicate that there is an ecologically unequal exchange. Whereas a positive trade balance is desirable from an economic policy, its counterpart in physical units has been a persistent net outflow of material resources, the extraction of which causes environmental impacts and social conflicts. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Clark P.,Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences
Journal of Agrarian Change | Year: 2015

This paper contributes to the discussion on food sovereignty and the state by analysing the case of Ecuador. It presents a theoretical framework and literature review focused on the question of food sovereignty, the state and agrarian political economy. The case study of Ecuador, one of a handful of countries that has attempted to institutionalize food sovereignty in state policy, examines the political processes that led to the institutionalization of food sovereignty and the rural development and agricultural policies of the 'post-neoliberal' government of Rafael Correa. The analysis of the Ecuadorian case concludes that the implementation of public policies reflecting food sovereignty principles has largely proven elusive, with the exception of some institutional changes and developments at the local levels of the state. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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