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Kumar R.,University of Montana | Rosenberg E.,University of Montana | Feske M.I.,Latham and Watkins | DiPasquale A.G.,University of California at Berkeley
Journal of Organometallic Chemistry | Year: 2013

In an attempt to understand the factors that govern the rates of reaction of the complexes [Pt(en)Cl(NH2R)]+NO3 - (en = ethylene diamine) with guanosine monophosphate (dGMP) a series of amine complexes, where RC8H9NO2 (benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-ylmethanamine) (1), C8H11N (phenethylamine) (2), C7H9N (benzylamine) (3), C 6H7N (aniline) (4), C6H6IN (p-iodo-aniline) (5) C3H9NO (2-methoxy-ethylamine) (6) and C6H13N (cyclohexylamine) (7), were synthesized and their reactions with deoxyguanosine monophosphate (dGMP) were followed by 1H NMR. Compound 1 was initially chosen because it showed significant water solubility. Compound 1 reacted quantitatively but slowly with dGMP and a subsequent Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) study of the binding 1 to a GATC DNA repeat gave a TEM micrograph that showed selective labeling of DNA at guanine, using a technique that allowed the laying down of a straight single strand of DNA on a carbon platform. The TEM suggested a possible side reaction with adenine and so a study of the reaction of 1 with adenine was performed and showed slow and what appeared to be non-specific binding to deoxyadenosine monophosphate (dAMP). The reactions of compounds 2-7 with dGMP were then studied by 1H NMR and it was found that 2 reacted much faster than 1 with dGMP while the remaining complexes reacted more slowly. No reaction of 2 with dAMP was observed in the same time frame. The ultimate goal of the project was to bind a third row transition metal cluster to guanine and given the effective binding of 1 to DNA the synthesis of the complex [Os3(CO) 11PPh2(CH2)2NH2(en)PtCl] NO3 (9) is also reported that contains Pt as a linker to label guanine. The synthesis was performed by reacting Os3(CO) 10(CH3CN)2 with Ph2PCH 2CH2NH2 which gave an η2 chelate complex Os3(CO)10PPh2(CH2) 2NH2 (8). Complex 8 was reacted with [Pt(en)Cl(DMF)] NO3 in a CO atmosphere to give 9. 1H and 195Pt NMR indicate formation of an adduct with dGMP but too slowly to be of use in labeling DNA. The solid-state structure of 8 is also reported. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Mack J.,Latham and Watkins | Endemann B.,Latham and Watkins
Energy Policy | Year: 2010

As the United States moves closer to a national climate change policy, it will have to focus on a variety of factors affecting the manner in which the country moves toward a future with a substantially lower carbon footprint. In addition to encouraging renewable energy, smart grid, clean fuels and other technologies, the United States will need to make substantial infrastructure investments in a variety of industries. Among the significant contributors to the current carbon footprint in the United States is the use of coal as a major fuel for the generation of electricity. One of the most important technologies that the United States can employ to reduce its carbon footprint is to sequester the carbon dioxide ("CO2") from coal-fired power plants. This article focuses on the legal and policy issues surrounding a critical piece of the necessary sequestration infrastructure: CO2 pipelines that will carry CO2 from where it is removed from fuel or waste gas streams to where it will be sequestered. Ultimately, this article recommends developing a federally regulated CO2 pipeline program to foster the implementation of carbon sequestration technology. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Mack J.H.,Latham and Watkins | Gianvecchio N.,Latham and Watkins | Campopiano M.T.,Latham and Watkins | M. Logan S.,Latham and Watkins
Electricity Journal | Year: 2011

While most U.S. states have now adopted renewable energy portfolio standards, most also require a certain percentage of such generation to be " home grown." These requirements lead to volatile and reduced-value markets for renewable energy credits and ultimately increase the cost of renewable energy. A review of the requirements suggests that either national or regional markets be fostered to reduce such adverse impacts of the requirements. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source


Gergen M.,Latham and Watkins | O'Brien C.,Latham and Watkins | Hopson E.W.L.,Latham and Watkins | Pettit D.E.,Latham and Watkins
Electricity Journal | Year: 2012

A power plant can find itself subject to potential liability under the Clean Air Act if it does not cease or greatly reduce operations and at the same time be compelled by the Department of Energy and/or the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission acting under the Federal Power Act to keep operating to ensure reliability. There needs to be cooperation among the federal agencies to create a stable and predictable regulatory environment at a minimum and, more preferably, a comprehensive solution to prevent this conflict from occurring in the first place. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

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