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Nasrullah M.,Aalto University | Vainikka P.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Hannula J.,Lassila and Tikanoja plc | Hurme M.,Aalto University | Koskinen J.,Aalto University
Fuel | Year: 2015

Quality of solid recovered fuel (SRF) demands that the waste components containing pollutant and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and inert components are sorted out into separate small streams and to concentrate the suitable components into a prepared depolluted combustible fraction stream of SRF. In the SRF production, mass flow of waste components' type into the output streams determine the quality of SRF. This paper presents the mass flow of pollutant and potentially toxic elements in full-scale SRF production. The SRF was produced from construction and demolition waste (C&DW) through mechanical treatment (MT). The input and output streams of SRF production were chemically characterised for the concentration of inorganic elements in details. The results showed that of the total input chlorine content to the process, 34% was found in SRF and 48% in reject material. Mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) were found concentrated in fine fraction i.e. of the total input content of mercury and arsenic, 64% and 42% respectively was found in fine fraction. Most of the lead (Pb) was found in reject material and fine fraction i.e. of the total input lead content, 45% and 44% was found in reject material and fine fraction respectively. In case of cadmium (Cd), of the total input content of cadmium, 68% was found in SRF. Among the components of C&D waste, rubber and plastic (hard) were measured to contain higher chlorine (Cl) content i.e. 7.6 wt.%, d. and 7.0 wt.%, d. respectively. Plastic (hard) was measured to contain 880 mg/kg, d. of lead (Pb) which was higher than measured in other components. Textile was measured to contain 12 mg/kg, d. of arsenic (As) which was higher than measured in other components. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Nasrullah M.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Vainikka P.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Hannula J.,Lassila and Tikanoja plc | Hurme M.,Aalto University | Karki J.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland
Waste Management | Year: 2014

In this work, the fraction of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) complicated and economically not feasible to sort out for recycling purposes is used to produce solid recovered fuel (SRF) through mechanical treatment (MT). The paper presents the mass, energy and material balances of this SRF production process. All the process streams (input and output) produced in MT waste sorting plant to produce SRF from C&D waste are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for SRF. Proximate and ultimate analysis of these streams is performed and their composition is determined. Based on this analysis and composition of process streams their mass, energy and material balances are established for SRF production process. By mass balance means the overall mass flow of input waste material stream in the various output streams and material balances mean the mass flow of components of input waste material stream (such as paper and cardboard, wood, plastic (soft), plastic (hard), textile and rubber) in the various output streams of SRF production process. The results from mass balance of SRF production process showed that of the total input C&D waste material to MT waste sorting plant, 44% was recovered in the form of SRF, 5% as ferrous metal, 1% as non-ferrous metal, and 28% was sorted out as fine fraction, 18% as reject material and 4% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of this SRF production process showed that of the total input energy content of C&D waste material to MT waste sorting plant, 74% was recovered in the form of SRF, 16% belonged to the reject material and rest 10% belonged to the streams of fine fraction and heavy fraction. From the material balances of this process, mass fractions of plastic (soft), paper and cardboard, wood and plastic (hard) recovered in the SRF stream were 84%, 82%, 72% and 68% respectively of their input masses to MT plant. A high mass fraction of plastic (PVC) and rubber material was found in the reject material stream. Streams of heavy fraction and fine fraction mainly contained non-combustible material (such as stone/rock, sand particles and gypsum material). © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Nasrullah M.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Vainikka P.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Hannula J.,Lassila and Tikanoja plc | Hurme M.,Aalto University
Fuel | Year: 2015

In order to study the mass flow of pollutant and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the output streams of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production process, the various streams produced in commercial scale SRF production process are characterized chemically and, the elemental balance of SRF production process is presented. The SRF is produced from commercial and industrial waste (C&IW) through mechanical treatment (MT). The elements investigated for their mass balance in SRF production process are chlorine (Cl), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg). The results showed that of the total input chlorine 60% was found in the SRF stream and 35% in the reject material stream and rest of 5% was in fine fraction and heavy fraction streams. Of the total input arsenic content 42% was found in the reject material and 32% in the SRF stream and rest (i.e. 26%) was found in the fine fraction stream. In case of cadmium, lead and mercury of their total input content to the process 46%, 58% and 45% respectively was found in the SRF stream. Among the waste components of C&IW, rubber and plastic (hard) were measured to contain the highest content of chlorine i.e. 8.0 wt.% (dry basis) and 3.0 wt.% (dry basis) respectively. Rubber was also found to contain higher content of cadmium as compared to other waste components. Plastic (hard) was measured to contain higher content of lead (i.e. 400 mg/kg, dry basis) than other components of input waste stream. The distribution of waste components (mainly plastic (hard), rubber and to some extent textile) was found significantly more important than other components of input waste stream in defining the concentration of pollutant and potentially toxic elements in output streams of SRF production process. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Nasrullah M.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Vainikka P.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Hannula J.,Lassila and Tikanoja plc | Hurme M.,Aalto University | Karki J.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland
Waste Management | Year: 2014

This paper presents the mass, energy and material balances of a solid recovered fuel (SRF) production process. The SRF is produced from commercial and industrial waste (C&IW) through mechanical treatment (MT). In this work various streams of material produced in SRF production process are analyzed for their proximate and ultimate analysis. Based on this analysis and composition of process streams their mass, energy and material balances are established for SRF production process. Here mass balance describes the overall mass flow of input waste material in the various output streams, whereas material balance describes the mass flow of components of input waste stream (such as paper and cardboard, wood, plastic (soft), plastic (hard), textile and rubber) in the various output streams of SRF production process. A commercial scale experimental campaign was conducted on an MT waste sorting plant to produce SRF from C&IW. All the process streams (input and output) produced in this MT plant were sampled and treated according to the CEN standard methods for SRF: EN 15442 and EN 15443. The results from the mass balance of SRF production process showed that of the total input C&IW material to MT waste sorting plant, 62% was recovered in the form of SRF, 4% as ferrous metal, 1% as non-ferrous metal and 21% was sorted out as reject material, 11.6% as fine fraction, and 0.4% as heavy fraction. The energy flow balance in various process streams of this SRF production process showed that of the total input energy content of C&IW to MT plant, 75% energy was recovered in the form of SRF, 20% belonged to the reject material stream and rest 5% belonged with the streams of fine fraction and heavy fraction. In the material balances, mass fractions of plastic (soft), plastic (hard), paper and cardboard and wood recovered in the SRF stream were 88%, 70%, 72% and 60% respectively of their input masses to MT plant. A high mass fraction of plastic (PVC), rubber material and non-combustibles (such as stone/rock and glass particles), was found in the reject material stream. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Nasrullah M.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Vainikka P.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Hannula J.,Lassila and Tikanoja plc | Hurme M.,Aalto University | Karki J.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland
Waste Management and Research | Year: 2015

This is the third and final part of the three-part article written to describe the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process produced from various types of waste streams through mechanical treatment. This article focused the production of solid recovered fuel from municipal solid waste. The stream of municipal solid waste used here as an input waste material to produce solid recovered fuel is energy waste collected from households of municipality. This article presents the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process. These balances are based on the proximate as well as the ultimate analysis and the composition determination of various streams of material produced in a solid recovered fuel production plant. All the process streams are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for solid recovered fuel. The results of the mass balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 72% of the input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel; 2.6% as ferrous metal, 0.4% as non-ferrous metal, 11% was sorted as rejects material, 12% as fine faction and 2% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 86% of the total input energy content of input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel. The remaining percentage (14%) of the input energy was split into the streams of reject material, fine fraction and heavy fraction. The material balances of this process showed that mass fraction of paper and cardboard, plastic (soft) and wood recovered in the solid recovered fuel stream was 88%, 85% and 90%, respectively, of their input mass. A high mass fraction of rubber material, plastic (PVC-plastic) and inert (stone/rock and glass particles) was found in the reject material stream. © The Author(s) 2014.

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