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Bano A.,University of Karachi | Bano A.,Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Sciences | Moazzam M.,Government of Pakistan | Ayub Z.,University of Karachi | Siddiqui G.,University of Karachi
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2011

In the present study three species of Siphonaria, viz., S. ashgar, S. belcheri and S. kurracheensis were identified on the rocky coasts of Karachi. Two species, S. ashgar and S. belcheri are being reported for the first time from Pakistan whereas S. kurracheensis was already reported earlier. Source

Tahir M.,University of Agriculture | Khalid U.B.,University of Agriculture | Waseem M.,Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Sciences
Custos e Agronegocio | Year: 2015

A field study was conducted to evaluate the variation in benefit cost ratio and yield of mungbean due different sources and levels of phosphorus at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan during spring 2009. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement having a net plot size 3 m x 5 m with three replications. The soil contained 0.65% organic matter, 7.3 ppm available P, 197 ppm available K and 0.08 total N. Nitrogen at the rate of 25 kg per hectare and 0, 30, 60 & 90 kg/ha of phosphorus were used as diammonium phosphate (DAP), single super phosphate (SSP) and triple super phosphate (TSP) respectively. Findings of this study revealed that maximum number of plant height at maturity (71.80 cm), branches having pods (4.44), total pods of a single plant (9.58), 1000-grain weight (67.54 g), seed yield (1288.62kg per hectare), biological production (5504.2 kg per hectare), harvest index(23.22%) and protein content (21.07%) were attained by the fertilization of phosphorus 60 kg per hectare. Maximum fertilizer use efficiency (7.30) was achieved by the fertilization of 30 kg phosphorus per hectare in the form of DAP, SSP and TSP. P1 rates had nonconsiderable effect on plants in a plot and total seeds in a single pod. The outcome shows that various sources of phosphorous had no-prenominal effect on all the parameters under study. Interaction between P rates and various sources was also observed statistically non-considerable. The highest net income was obtained when phosphorus was applied at the rate of 60 kg per hectare. © 2015, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco. All rights reserved. Source

Rehman H.U.,Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Sciences | Aman A.,University of Karachi | Nawaz M.A.,University of Karachi | Qader S.A.U.,University of Karachi
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2015

A commercially available pectin degrading enzyme preparation is not usually pure and may contain several other auxiliary enzymes including pectin lyase and pectin methyl esterase with reasonably trace quantities of cellulases as well. Current work is focused to characterize an industrially important pectin degrading enzyme known as polygalacturonase produced by Bacillus licheniformis KIBGE-IB21 in term of its catalytic activity. The enzyme showed maximum activity when it was incubated for 05min at 45°C in an alkaline pH environment of pH-10.0. This enzyme is stable at a broad pH range and retained almost 100% of its initial activity in between pH 8.0 and 10.0 after 60min. It also exhibited high stability against different temperatures and 100% residual activity was measured at 30°C and 40°C up to 1h. The apparent Km and Vmax values for pectin degradation were 1.017mgml-1 and 23,800μMmin-1, respectively with an approximate molecular weight of 153kDa. Polygalacturonase also demonstrated exceptional storage stability at →20°C even after 30 days. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Bano A.,Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Sciences | Ayub Z.,University of Karachi | Siddiqui G.,University of Karachi
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2014

Fatty acid composition was determined in three pulmonate gastropod species, Siphonaria ashgar, S. belcheri and S. kurracheensis inhabiting the high, mid and low tidal zones on the coast of Mubarak Village, Karachi, Pakistan. Eleven fatty acids were abundant in all three species, that is, palmitic acid, stearic acid, palmitoleic acid, oleic acid, vaccenic acid, gadoleic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, docosatetraenoic acid, α-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. The analysis revealed no significant qualitative differences in the fatty acid profile of three Siphonaria species, however the difference in quantities of different fatty acids in tissue of S. ashgar, S. belcheri and S. kurracheensis may be related to their distribution in different tidal zones and thus availability of different microalgal diets. The presence of excellent quantity of polyunstaurated fatty acid, that is, linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, Arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in three species of Siphonaria can be utilized as potential fishery resource for nutrition, particularly in developing countries. Copyright © 2014 Zoological Society of Pakistan. Source

Rajput I.R.,Zhejiang University | Rajput I.R.,Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Sciences | Hussain A.,Zhejiang University | Li Y.L.,Zhejiang University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2014

Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that play a critical role to activate immune response. They may be targeted for immunomodulation by microbes, including probiotics. In this study, chicken bone marrow dendrite cells (chi-BMDCs) were stimulated with lipopolysachride (LPS), Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb), Bacillus subtilis B10 (Bs), co-culture of Sb + Bs and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) as a control group (Ctr) at 3, 6, and 12 h intervals. Results revealed that treatment groups modulated the phenotype and biological functions of chi-BMDCs. Scan electron microscopy showed attachment of probiotics on the surface of chi-BMDCs. Additionally transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed efficiently engulfing and degradation of probiotics. Gene expression levels of MHC-II, CD40, CD80 and CD86 up-regulated in stimulated groups. Furthermore, toll-like receptors TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, and chicken specific TLR15 expressions were improved and downstream associated factors MyD88, TRAF6, TAB1, and NFκ-B mRNA levels increased in all treatment groups as compared to control. Surprisingly, NFκ-B response was noted significant higher in LPS treatment among all groups. Moreover, IL-1β, IL-17, IL-4, TGF-β, and IL-10 production levels were found higher, and lower concentration of INF-γ and IL-8 were observed in Sb, Bs, and Sb + Bs treatment groups. In contrast, LPS groups showed prominent increase in IL-12, INF-γ, and IL-8 concentration levels as compared to control group. Altogether, these results emphasize a potentially important role of Saccharomyces boulardii and Bacillus subtilis B10 in modulating immunological functions of chi-BMDCs by targeting specific toll like receptors (TLRs) and associated factors. The role of probiotics on chi-BMDCs functionality in a non-mammalian species have been presented for the first time. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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