Las Muros

Rimont, France

Las Muros

Rimont, France
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Raja H.A.,University of North Carolina at Greensboro | Paguigan N.D.,University of North Carolina at Greensboro | Fournier J.,Las Muros | Oberlies N.H.,University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Mycological Progress | Year: 2017

Two new species of freshwater ascomycetes belonging to the genus Lindgomyces (Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes) are described and illustrated from submerged wood in North Carolina, USA. Lindgomyces carolinensis is characterized by immersed to erumpent ascomata, fissitunicate broadly cylindrical to clavate asci, and fusiform ascospores with acute ends surrounded by a large, fusiform gelatinous sheath. Lindgomyces cigarospora morphologically differs from L. carolinensis in that its ascospores are fusiform to cylindrical with rounded ends, without a large fusiform gelatinous sheath. These two new species nest in the family Lindgomycetaceae based on analyses of combined SSU and LSU rDNA sequence data. Phylogenetic analyses using ITS sequence data support the establishment of the new taxa as separate species within Lindgomyces. In addition to the new species, we report new ITS sequence data for L. cinctosporus and L. griseosporus from France, and L. ingoldianus from North Carolina, USA. We report a video exhibiting fissitunicate ascus dehiscence in L. carolinensis showing ascospore discharge and unraveling of the gelatinous sheath in real time. Chemical analysis of the organic extracts of L. carolinensis and L. cigarospora resulted in two known cyclodepsipeptides, Sch 378161 and Sch 217048. The in situ spatial mapping of these secondary metabolites on fungal cultures indicates the presence of both compounds on the surface of mycelia, as well as being exuded into the surrounding agar. © 2017 German Mycological Society and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Fournier J.,Las Muros | Persoh D.,University of Bayreuth | Stadler M.,University of Bayreuth | Stadler M.,Helmholtz Center for Infection Research
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Nodulisporic acids (NAs) are indole diterpene fungal metabolites exhibiting potent systemic efficacy against blood-feeding arthropods, e.g., bedbugs, fleas and ticks, via binding to arthropod specific glutamate-gated chloride channels. Intensive medicinal chemistry efforts employing a nodulisporic acid A template have led to the development of N-tert-butyl nodulisporamide as a product candidate for a once monthly treatment of fleas and ticks on companion animals. The source of the NAs is a monophyletic lineage of asexual endophytic fungal strains that is widely distributed in the tropics, tentatively identified as a Nodulisporium species and hypothesized to be the asexual state of a Hypoxylon species. Methods and Results: Inferences from GenBank sequences indicated that multiple researchers have encountered similar Nodulisporium endophytes in tropical plants and in air samples. Ascomata-derived cultures from a wood-inhabiting fungus, from Martinique and closely resembling Hypoxylon investiens, belonged to the same monophyletic clade as the NAs-producing endophytes. The hypothesis that the Martinique Hypoxylon collections were the sexual state of the NAs-producing endophytes was tested by mass spectrometric analysis of NAs, multi-gene phylogenetic analysis, and phenotypic comparisons of the conidial states. We established that the Martinique Hypoxylon strains produced an ample spectrum of NAs and were conspecific with the pantropical Nodulisporium endophytes, yet were distinct from H. investiens. A new species, H. pulicicidum, is proposed to accommodate this widespread organism. Conclusions and Significance: Knowledge of the life cycle of H. pulicicidum will facilitate an understanding of the role of insecticidal compounds produced by the fungus, the significance of its infections in living plants and how it colonizes dead wood. The case of H. pulicicidum exemplifies how life cycle studies can consolidate disparate observations of a fungal organism, whether from environmental sequences, vegetative mycelia or field specimens, resulting in holistic species concepts critical to the assessment of the dimensions of fungal diversity. © 2012 Bills et al.

Miller A.N.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Huhndorf S.M.,The Field Museum | Fournier J.,Las Muros
Mycologia | Year: 2014

In an ongoing effort to monograph the genus Lasiosphaeria, it is desirable to obtain estimates of the phylogenetic relationships for five uncommon species, L. coacta, L. munkii, L. punctata, L. sphagnorum and L. stuppea. Three additional species previously placed in Lasiosphaeria, Echinosphaeria canescens, Hilberina caudata and Ruzenia spermoides, also were included in this study as well as three undescribed species. These species were believed to have relations elsewhere based on various ambiguous morphological characters, so an independent dataset from one or more genes was used to resolve their phylogenetic affinities. Sequences from the nuclear ribosomal 28S large subunit (LSU) and b-tubulin genes were generated for these taxa. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses indicated these taxa form a well supported monophyletic group with members of the Helminthosphaeriaceae and therefore, should be transferred out of Lasiosphaeria. Except for Helminthosphaeria gibberosa, Hilberina elegans, Ruzenia spermoides and Synaptospora plumbea, all taxa within this clade possess ascomata with distinct thick-walled setae. Based on a combination of morphological and molecular data, Helminthosphaeria tomaculum, Helminthosphaeria triseptata and Hilberina robusta are described as new and four new combinations are proposed: Helminthosphaeria ludens, Hel. stuppea, Hilberina punctata and H. sphagnorum. Ten new combinations are proposed based on morphological data: Echinosphaeria heterostoma, Helminthosphaeria flavocompta, Hel. gibberosa, Hel. heterotricha, Hilberina breviseta, H. elegans, H. foliicola, H. meznaensis, H. moseri and H. rhynchospora. Lasiosphaeria coacta is placed in synonymy with Hel. ludens and the previous transfer of Hilberina munkii is accepted. Synaptospora plumbea was found to belong in the family. Illustrations are provided for most Helminthosphaeriaceae taxa seen in this study. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

Fournier J.,Las Muros | Hyde K.D.,Mae Fah Luang University
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2010

A new ascomycete genus, Achroceratosphaeria, is described for three lignicolous species from freshwater and terrestrial habitats in Asia and Europe on the basis of morphological studies and phylogenetic analysis of combined nc28S (LSU) and nc18S (SSU) rDNA sequence data. The new genus is characterized by minute, hyaline or subhyaline to pale brown perithecia immersed in the substratum with hyaline to subhyaline emergent necks. Paraphyses disintegrate with age, asci are cylindricalclavate with a distinct apical annulus containing eight hyaline ascospores; ascospores are smooth-walled, ranging from ellipsoidal to fusiform to cylindrical-fusiform, without a mucilaginous sheath or appendages. All three species were obtained after incubation in a moist chamber. Achroceratosphaeria resembles Ceratosphaeria, Pseudohalonectria or Clohiesia in ascospore morphology, but molecular data do not support these relationships. In our phylogeny, a relationship between Achroceratosphaeria and taxa in the Lulworthiales and Koralionastetales is confirmed. Ceratosphaeria incolorata is transferred to Achroceratosphaeria and a new combination is proposed. A key to the species accepted in Achroceratosphaeria is provided. © Kevin D. Hyde 2010.

Hsieh H.-M.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Lin C.-R.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Fang M.-J.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Rogers J.D.,Washington State University | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2010

To infer the phylogenetic relationships of Xylaria species associated with termite nests within the genus Xylaria and among genera of the subfamily Xylarioideae, β-tubulin, RPB2, and α-actin sequences of 131 cultures of 114 species from Xylaria and 11 other genera of the subfamily were analyzed. These 11 genera included Astrocystis, Amphirosellinia, Discoxylaria, Entoleuca, Euepixylon, Kretzschmaria, Nemania, Podosordaria, Poronia, Rosellinia, and Stilbohypoxylon. We showed that Xylaria species were distributed among three major clades, TE, HY, and PO, with clade TE-an equivalent of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria-encompassing exclusively those species associated with termite nests and the other two clades containing those associated with substrates other than termite nests. Xylaria appears to be a paraphyletic genus, with most of the 11 genera submerged within it. Podosordaria and Poronia, which formed a distinct clade, apparently diverged from Xylaria and the other genera early. Species of Entoleuca, Euepixylon, Nemania, and Rosellinia constituted clade NR, a major clade sister to clade PO, while those of Kretzschmaria were inserted within clade HY and those of Astrocystis, Amphirosellinia, Discoxylaria, and Stilbohypoxylon were within clade PO. © 2009 Elsevier Inc.

Jaklitsch W.M.,University of Vienna | Fournier J.,Las Muros | Rogers J.D.,Washington State University | Voglmayr H.,University of Vienna
Persoonia: Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi | Year: 2014

The genus Lopadostoma (Xylariaceae, Xylariales) is revised. Most species formerly assigned to Lopadostoma do not belong to the genus. Twelve species are herein recognised, of which two are only known from morphology. Ten species, of which six (L. americanum, L. fagi, L. insulare, L. lechatii, L. meridionale and L. quercicola) are newly described, are characterised by both morphology and DNA phylogeny using LSU, ITS and rpb2 sequences. Morphologically, ecologically and phylogenetically Lopadostoma is a well-defined genus comprising exclusively species with pustular pseudostroma development in bark of angiospermous trees. Phaeosperma ailanthi, Phaeosperma dryophilum and Sphaeria linosperma are combined in Lopadostoma. Lopadostoma gastrinum is neotypified and L. turgidum is lecto- and epitypified. Species with asci and ascospores similar to those of Lopadostoma but having perithecia immersed in wood, particularly those of Lopadostoma subg. Anthostomopsis have been determined to be unrelated to the genus. DNA data confirm that Anthostoma is unrelated to Lopadostoma. Its type and currently only confirmed species Anthostoma decipiens belongs to Diatrypaceae. DNA data also show that L. pouzarii and Barrmaelia macrospora are unrelated to Lopadostoma. A commentary is provided for names in Lopadostoma and those names in Anthostoma that may be putative species of Lopadostoma based on their protologues. Anthostoma insidiosum is an older name for Anthostomella (Diatrype) adusta. © 2014 Naturalis Biodiversity Center & Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures.

Stadler M.,Helmholtz Center for Infection Research | Laessoe T.,Copenhagen University | Fournier J.,Las Muros | Decock C.,Catholic University of Louvain | And 4 more authors.
Studies in Mycology | Year: 2014

For a monograph based on a polythetic concept, several thousands of herbarium specimens, and several hundreds of freshly collected and cultured specimens of Daldinia and allied Xylariaceae, originating from around the world, were studied for morphological traits, including by SEM, and chemically by HPLC profiles using UVvisible and mass spectrometric detection. Emphasis was given to tropical material, and importantly, ancient specimens, including as many types as possible, were tracked and studied to review earlier taxonomic concepts. An epitype of D. eschscholtzii was selected as representative of the morphochemotype that is most widely distributed in the tropics. Six new species of Daldinia from the tropics and the southern Hemisphere are described. Daldinia asphalatum is resurrected, and D. cudonia is regarded as its synonym. In addition, the following binomials are epi-, iso-, neo- and/or lectotypified: Daldinia asphalatum, D. caldariorum, D. clavata, D. cuprea, D. durissima, D. eschscholtzii, D. grandis, D. loculata, and D. vernicosa. Annellosporium and Versiomyces are regarded as synonyms of Daldinia. Many new synonymies in Daldinia are proposed, and some previously published names are rejected. In total, 47 taxa in Daldinia are recognised and a key is provided. Their biogeography, chorology, and ecology, as well as the importance of their secondary metabolites, are also discussed. The previous definition of the genus is emended. The species concept is based mainly on morphological and other phenotype-derived characters because, despite diligent search, no molecular data or cultures of several of the accepted species could be obtained. Daldinia is segregated into five major groups, based on phenotypic characteristics. Some unnamed but aberrant specimens were not found in good condition and are therefore not formally described as new species. However, they are illustrated in detail in a hope that this will facilitate the discovery of fresh material in future. A preliminary molecular phylogeny based on 5.8S/ITS nrDNA including numerous representatives of all hitherto described taxa for which cultures are extant, was found basically in agreement with the above mentioned segregation of the genus, based on morphological and chemotaxonomic evidence. In the rDNA based phylogenetic tree, Daldinia appears clearly distinct from members of the genera Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon; nevertheless, representatives of small genera of predominantly tropical origin (Entonaema, Phylacia, Ruwenzoria, Rhopalostroma, Thamnomyces) appear to have evolved from daldinioid ancestors and are nested inside the Daldinia clade. Interestingly, these findings correlate with chemotaxonomic characters to a great extent, especially regarding the distribution of marker metabolites in their mycelial cultures. Hence, the current study revealed for the first time that fungal secondary metabolite profiles can have taxonomic value beyond the species rank and even coincide with phylogenetic data.

Fournier J.,Las Muros | Flessa F.,University of Bayreuth | Persoh D.,University of Bayreuth | Stadler M.,University of Bayreuth | Stadler M.,InterMed Discovery GmbH
Mycological Progress | Year: 2011

Three undescribed European species of Xylaria are recognized from new combinations of anamorphic and teleomorphic characters. Their phylogenetic affinities are revealed by a 5.8S/ITS nrDNA analysis. Two of them (X. karsticola and X. vasconica) appear closely related to X. hypoxylon sensu stricto. Xylaria cinerea is distributed in western Europe (France, Spain, United Kingdom) and the Canary Islands and appears closely related to a yet unnamed taxon from New Zealand. In addition to southwestern Europe, X. vasconica is also present in eastern USA. A specimen of X. hypoxylon from the US West Coast agreed with European material with regard to the teleomorph, but its cultures showed a different morphology. Xylaria arbuscula var. plenofissura is reported from a natural habitat on the European mainland for the first time, and the occurrence of this member of the X. arbuscula complex on the Canary Islands is confirmed. © 2010 German Mycological Society and Springer.

Fournier J.,Las Muros | Lechat C.,64 route de Chize
Mycotaxon | Year: 2011

The authors describe a new species of Eutypella (Diatrypaceae, Xylariales) based on several collections on Suaeda vera in France and one on Salsola vermiculata in Spain. The Libertella-like asexual state was obtained in culture. © 2011. Mycotaxon, Ltd.

Kuhnert E.,Helmholtz Center for Infection Research | Fournier J.,Las Muros | Persoh D.,University of Bayreuth | Luangsa-Ard J.J.D.,National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology | Stadler M.,Helmholtz Center for Infection Research
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2014

Three new species of Hypoxylon (Xylariaceae) collected from Martinique in the French Caribbean are recognised by new combinations of morphological characters. Their status as undescribed taxa was supported by secondary metabolite profiling based on High performance liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometric detection (HPLC/DAD-MS) as well as by comparison of ITS and partial ß-tubulin DNA sequences with related taxa. In the course of this study, the teleomorph of Nodulisporium griseobrunneum was found, and this species could be transferred to Hypoxylon. Moreover, several names in Hypoxylon are epitypified by selecting recently collected specimens from the same geographic areas as the holotypes came from. Despite the fact that our study used the hitherto most extensive taxon sampling, the phylogenetic analyses inferred from ITS and ß-tubulin sequences remain contradictory to each other, and neither genealogy was found fully in agreement with phenotype-derived traits. We conclude that the right gene (or multi-gene genealogies) to reflect the phylogeny and evolution of Hypoxylon still remains to be found. For the time being, we recommend that the application of polyphasic taxonomic concepts should be continued in taxonomic studies of Hypoxylon. © 2013 Mushroom Research Foundation.

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