Entity

Time filter

Source Type

Lappeenranta, Finland

Lappeenranta University of Technology was established in 1969. The university campus is situated on the shore of lake Saimaa, about 7 kilometres away from the city center. In the 1950s and 1960s, the Finnish government made plans to establish the University of Eastern Finland in Lappeenranta, but in the end it was decentralized in three cities: Lappeenranta, Kuopio, and Joensuu. Only departments of engineering were located in Lappeenranta at that time. The Department of Business Administration was established and teaching of economics began in 1991.Nowadays, LUT’s strategic focus areas are green energy and technology, the creation of sustainable competitiveness and operation as a hub of international Russian relations. Being located near the eastern boundary of Finland, the university also offers comprehensive know-how related to Russia. Furthermore, LUT cooperates closely with business life, and next to the university lies Technology Centre Kareltek. LUT is state run and state funded, like all other universities in Finland.In 2011 LUT started Green Campus -project. LUT Green Campus is a unique research and educational environment, where the university's expertise in energy as well as its own innovations are put to practical use. Green Campus is an example on how science and technology can be used to solve environmental problems and build a sustainable world.There are about 960 staff members and 6,900 students in the university. In LUT one can graduate in the following degrees: Bachelor of Science , Bachelor of Science , Master of Science , Master of Science , Licentiate of Science , Licentiate of Science , Doctor of Science , Doctor of Science , and Doctor of Philosophy. LUT has several internationally accredited Master´s programmes. Master's degree programme in International Marketing Management was awarded EFMD`s EPAS-accreditation for five years in 2012. EUR-ACE and ASIIN-accredited programmes LUT has in Chemical Engineering, in Energy Technology, in Environmental Technology,in Mechanical Engineering, in Electrical Engineering and in Industrial Management. Wikipedia.


Partanen J.I.,Lappeenranta University of Technology
Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics | Year: 2013

The Hückel equation used in this study for the thermodynamic activity quantities in dilute MgCl2 solutions up to an ionic strength (=I m) of 1.5 mol·kg-1 contains two parameters being dependent on the electrolyte, i.e., those of B and b1. The former is linearly related to the ion-size parameter in the Debye-Hückel equation and the latter is the coefficient of the linear correction term with respect to the molality. For more concentrated solutions up to Im of 9.0 mol·kg-1, an extended Hückel equation was used. For it, the Hückel equation was extended with a quadratic term in molality, and the coefficient of this term is the third parameter b2. Parameters B and b1 for dilute MgCl2 solutions were obtained from the isopiestic data of Robinson and Stokes for solutions of this salt and KCl [Trans. Faraday Soc. 36 (1940) 733] by using the previous Hückel parameters for dilute KCl solutions [J. Chem. Eng. Data 54 (2009) 208]. The resulting parameters for MgCl2 solutions were successfully tested with all isopiestic data available in the literature for dilute solutions of this salt. For less dilute solutions, new values for parameters b1 and b 2 were determined for the extended version of the Hückel equation of MgCl2 solutions from the isopiestic data of Rard and Miller [J. Chem. Eng. Data 26 (1981) 38] for NaCl and MgCl2 solutions but the dilute-solution value for parameter B was used. The previous extended Hückel equation for concentrated NaCl solutions was used in this estimation (see the KCl citation above). In the tests of the new parameter values for these less dilute solutions, the existing vapor pressure and isopiestic data were used, and these data support well the new parameters. Reliable thermodynamic activity quantities for MgCl2 solutions can, therefore, be obtained using the new Hückel and extended Hückel equations. The activity coefficients, osmotic coefficients, and vapor pressures obtained with these equations are tabulated here at rounded molalities. These values were compared to those reported in the several previous important tabulations. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Partanen J.I.,Lappeenranta University of Technology
Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data | Year: 2012

The Hückel equation used in this study to describe the thermodynamic properties of dilute solutions of the ammonium salts of NH4Cl, NH4Br, NH4I, NH4NO3, NH 4SCN, and NH4H2PO4 up to 1.5 mol·kg-1 is consisted of two electrolyte-dependent parameters B and b1. Parameter B is linearly related to the ion-size parameter a* in the Debye-Hückel equation, and parameter b1 is the coefficient of the linear correction term with respect to the molality. This coefficient is associated with the hydration numbers of the ions forming the electrolyte. For NH4ClO4 solutions, the estimated Hückel equation applies up to 2.1 mol·kg-1, and the equation was obtained from the isopiestic data measured by Esval and Tyree (J. Phys. Chem.1962, 66, 940-942) against KCl solutions. For molalities above 1.5 mol·kg-1 (in the best case up to 10 mol·kg -1), an extended Hückel equation was used. For this equation, the Hückel equation is supplemented with a quadratic term in molality, and the coefficient of this term is parameter b2. All of the parameters for the Hückel equations of NH4Cl and NH4NO 3 solutions were estimated from isopiestic data of Wishaw and Stokes (Trans. Faraday Soc.1953, 49, 27-31). The former data were measured against KCl solutions and the latter against NaCl solutions. The Hückel parameters for NH4Br, NH4I, NH4SCN, and NH4H 2PO4 solutions were estimated from the data measured by Covington and Irish (J. Chem. Eng. Data1972, 17, 175-176), Bonner (J. Chem. Eng. Data1976, 21, 498-499), Covington and Matheson (J. Solution Chem.1977, 6, 263-267), and Filippov et al. (J. Appl. Chem., U.S.S.R., 1985, 58, 1807-1811), respectively, using the same experimental technique against NaCl solutions. In all of these estimations, the Hückel parameters of a recent KCl and NaCl study (J. Chem. Eng. Data2009, 54, 208-219) were used for the solutions of the reference electrolyte. In the tests of the new parameter values, the cell potential difference, vapor pressure, and isopiestic data available in the literature were used. These data support well the tested Hückel parameters in most cases at least up to 3.5 mol·kg-1. Reliable thermodynamic activity quantities for ammonium salt solutions are, therefore, obtained using the new Hückel parameters. The activity coefficients, osmotic coefficients, and the vapor pressures obtained using these equations are tabulated here at rounded molalities. These values were compared to those suggested by Robinson and Stokes (Electrolyte Solutions, 2nd ed.; Butterworths Scientific Publications: London, 1959), to those obtained using Pitzer equations (Activity Coefficients in Electrolyte Solutions, 2nd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, 1991; pp 100-101), and to those obtained using the extended Hückel equations presented by Hamer and Wu (J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data1972, 1, 1047-1099). © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Luukka P.,Lappeenranta University of Technology
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2011

Feature selection plays an important role in classification for several reasons. First it can simplify the model and this way computational cost can be reduced and also when the model is taken for practical use fewer inputs are needed which means in practice that fewer measurements from new samples are needed. Second by removing insignificant features from the data set one can also make the model more transparent and more comprehensible, providing better explanation of suggested diagnosis, which is an important requirement in medical applications. Feature selection process can also reduce noise and this way enhance the classification accuracy. In this article, feature selection method based on fuzzy entropy measures is introduced and it is tested together with similarity classifier. Model was tested with four medical data sets which were, dermatology, Pima-Indian diabetes, breast cancer and Parkinsons data set. With all the four data sets, we managed to get quite good results by using fewer features that in the original data sets. Also with Parkinsons and dermatology data sets, classification accuracy was managed to enhance significantly this way. Mean classification accuracy with Parkinsons data set being 85.03% with only two features from original 22. With dermatology data set, mean accuracy of 98.28% was achieved using 29 features instead of 34 original features. Results can be considered quite good. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Partanen J.I.,Lappeenranta University of Technology
Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data | Year: 2010

The Hückel equation used in this study to correlate the experimental activities of dilute RbCl and CsCl solutions up to a molality of about 3.5 mol · kg -1 contains two parameters being dependent on the electrolyte: B [that is related closely to the ion-size parameter (a*) in the Debye-Hückel equation] and b 1 (this parameter is the coefficient of the linear term with respect to the molality, and this coefficient is related to hydration numbers of the ions of the electrolyte). In more concentrated solutions up to the saturated molality of RbCl (= 7.78 mol · kg -1) and up to a molality of about 8 mol · kg -1 for CsCl, an extended Hückel equation was used. It contains additionally a quadratic term with respect to the molality, and the coefficient of this term is parameter b 2. All parameter values for the Hückel equations of RbCl were determined from the isopiestic data measured by Rard for NaCl and RbCl solutions (J. Chem. Eng. Data 1984, 29, 443-450) and all parameters for CsCl from the isopiestic data measured by Rard and Miller for NaCl and CsCl solutions (J. Chem. Eng. Data 1982, 27, 169-173). In these estimations, the Hückel parameters determined recently for NaCl solutions (J. Chem. Eng. Data 2009, 54, 208-219) were used. The resulting parameter values were tested with the cell potential, vapor pressure, and isopiestic data existing in the literature for RbCl and CsCl solutions. Most of these data can be reproduced within experimental error by means of the extended Hückel equation up to a molality of about 8.0 mol · kg -1. Reliable activity and osmotic coefficients for RbCl and CsCl solutions can, therefore, be calculated by using the new Hückel equations, and they have been tabulated here at rounded molalities. The activity and osmotic coefficients obtained from these equations were compared to the values suggested by Rard (RbCl, see citation above), Rard and Miller (CsCl, see citation above), and Robinson and Stokes (Electrolyte Solutions, 2nd ed.; Butterworths Scientific Publications: London, 1959). These values were also compared to those calculated by using the Pitzer equations with the parameters of Pitzer and Mayorga (J. Phys. Chem. 1973, 77, 2300-2308) and Pitzer (ActiVity Coefficients in Electrolyte Solutions, 2nd ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, 2000; pp 100-101) and to those calculated by using the extended Hückel equation of Hamer and Wu (J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 1972, 1, 1047-1099). © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source


Khan R.,Lappeenranta University of Technology
Applied Energy | Year: 2015

Small Hydro Power (SHP) is one of the most important renewable energy generation sources. It is a cost-effective technology that is being used for rural electrification in the developing countries including India. The Indian government is providing attractive initiatives to the private investors to promote faster development of SHP. Until now, a lot has been written about assessment, potential, advantages and the technical aspects of the SHP plants. However, the important business sustainability perspective has not been yet subjected to empirical analysis. Sustainable development involves three interconnected dimensions: social, economic and environmental sustainability. This paper attempts to investigate whether SHP business in India is a sustainable business. The study is based on the analysis of qualitative data acquired through 28 in-depth interviews with various actors that are connected to the SHP industry in India which include Independent Power Producers (IPPs), manufacturers, designers, consultants and representatives of various government organizations. The empirical material was collected in four states of India namely New Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) in February, 2013. The data was acquired by individual in-depth interviews, group discussions and direct observation of one SHP plant. The results show that all the three dimensions of sustainability are being realized to a certain extent. However, utmost efforts have to be undertaken in order to call this sector completely sustainable. Both benefits and challenges in all these dimensions are highlighted and recommendations towards a sustainable SHP sector are provided. Further, this study also proposes suggestions for the interested investors. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Discover hidden collaborations