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Arola A.-M.,University of Oulu | Kesti V.,SSAB | Ruoppa R.,Lapland University of Applied Sciences
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2015

Bendability is an important material property for ultra-high strength steel. The bendability of a certain material is expressed as the minimum bending radius Rmin of the inner surface of the bend and expressed in multiples of the sheet thickness. Bendability is limited by either cracking on the surface or the edges of the bend or by surface waviness that usually precedes cracking on the outer surface. Surface waviness is a form of strain localization in bending and the intensity of the phenomenon is dependent on e.g. The punch radius, the lower tool width and the sheet thickness. In this study the bendability of a S960 grade steel was investigated using optical strain measurements of three-point bending tests to determine the strain level and the bending angle when localization starts with different punch radii. The unbent samples were marked with a grid using laser marking and the deformation was measured with the GOM ARGUS strain analysis system after bending. The quality of the bend was also evaluated visually. In addition, tensile tests were performed and evaluated with the GOM ARAMIS deformation analysis system to investigate the local mechanical properties of the studied steel. The results of strain measurements and visual evaluation were then compared. It was found that beyond a certain angle the maximum strain across the bend did not significantly change with further increases in the bending angle when the punch radius was at least three times the sheet thickness. But with smaller punch radii the maximum strain increased almost linearly with increasing bending angle until fracture appeared. With the smaller punch radii deformation localizes and surface waviness begins to form in smaller bending angles because the deformation is concentrated in a narrow zone. © (2015) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Jokimaki J.,University of Lapland | Jokimaki J.,Lapland University of Applied Sciences | Suhonen J.,University of Turku | Jokimaki-Kaisanlahti M.-L.,University of Lapland | Carbo-Ramirez P.,University of Lapland
Urban Ecosystems | Year: 2014

Urbanization acts as a filter on bird species behavioral traits so that only few species can tolerate urban constraints. We analyzed how behavioral traits (nesting, feeding, and migratory habits) of breeding bird species affect their frequency of occurrence in the urban centers of 38 European towns. We used binary logistic regression analysis to predict the bird species traits belonging to each trait group. A total of 108 species (21% of the European breeding bird species) were found to breed in the European town centers. According to our broad-scale analyses the bird species most frequently breeding in town centers nest in buildings and/or buildings have diverse diets, in trees (40%) and are resident omnivores, or relied on seeds or fruits as their sources of food. However, almost all bird species also fed on arthropods (92%) during the breeding season. Only a few urban bird species bred on the ground. Four out of the studied 108 species were non-native and five species were predators. Our broad-scale results from Europe indicate that bird species with different behavioral traits can respond differently to urbanization. Bird species that nest in cavities/buildings have diverse diets, that benefit a resident way-of-life, may have an advantage in living and settling in European town centers. Our results from Europe may provide insights related to the development of bird assemblages in the urban core areas of the New World. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Makimurto-Koivumaa S.,Lapland University of Applied Sciences | Belt P.,University of Oulu
European Journal of Engineering Education | Year: 2015

Engineering competences form a potential basis for entrepreneurship. There are pressures to find new approaches to entrepreneurship education (EE) in engineering education, as the traditional analytical logic of engineering does not match the modern view of entrepreneurship. Since the previous models do not give tangible enough tools on how to organise EE in practice, this article aims to develop a new framework for EE at the university level. We approach this aim by analysing existing scientific literature complemented by long-term practical observations, enabling a fruitful interplay between theory and practice. The developed framework recommends aspects in EE to be emphasised during each year of the study process. Action-based learning methods are highlighted in the beginning of studies to support students’ personal growth. Explicit business knowledge is to be gradually increased only when professional, field-specific knowledge has been adequately accumulated. © 2015 SEFI

Kylanen M.,Lapland University of Applied Sciences | Mariani M.M.,University of Bologna
Anatolia | Year: 2012

Coopetition, namely the co-presence of cooperation and competition, is a new strategy that goes beyond the established business paradigms of competition and cooperation. This type of strategy is relevant in tourism destinations, for instance in theme parks, where competing, co-located companies also collaborate. In this paper, we address the temporal dynamics of interorganizational relationships in Finnish and Italian theme parks (i.e. Lapland and Riviera Romagnola). Our comparative study shows that cooperation and coopetition among tourism businesses often shift from a prevalently short-term basis to a long term one when public and private stakeholders understand the benefits accruing to cooperation in terms of enhancement of the brand image of the destination and attraction of a higher number of visitors, by leveraging the destination's multifaceted assets. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.

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