Zheng Y.,Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute |
Zheng Y.,Jiangsu Electric Power Company
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2017
Taenia ovis is a tapeworm that is mainly transmitted between dogs and sheep or goats and has an adverse effect on sheep industry. miRNAs are short regulatory non-coding RNAs, involved in parasite development and growth as well as parasite infection. The miRNA profile of T. ovis remains to be established. Herein, 33 known miRNAs belonging to 23 different families were identified in T. ovis metacestodes using deep sequencing approach. Of them, expression of some miRNAs such as tov-miR-10 and -let-7 was absolutely predominant. Moreover, comparative analysis revealed the presence of a miR-71/2b/2c cluster in T. ovis, which was also completely conserved in other 6 cestodes. The study provides rich data for further understandings of T. ovis biology. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: KBBE-2007-1-3-06 | Award Amount: 1.12M | Year: 2008
West Nile Fever (WNF), Rift Valley Fever (RVF) and Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) are arthropod-borne diseases of different domestic and wild animals and can also affect humans, posing a great threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. Their geographical distribution has expanded in recent decades. WNF outbreaks have already occurred in Europe, CCHF is endemic in many countries including Europe. In 2000, RVF, was reported the first time outside of the African continent, cases being confirmed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. This virgin-soil epidemic raises the threat of expansion into other parts of Asia and Europe. There is a general public concern regarding emerging zoonotic diseases which has gained new relevance in the light of global warming. This is especially true regarding the spread of vector-borne diseases such as CCHF, RVF and WNF. It is imperative to work out integrated control measures which include vector control, vaccination programmes, improved therapy strategies, diagnostic tools and surveillance, public awareness, capacity building and improvement of infrastructure in endemic regions. The anticipated project will address these areas specifically aiming at: 1) creating common knowledge on the diseases, sharing and exchanging data, expertise, experiences and scientific information; 2) maintaining and expanding surveillance systems, monitoring disease occurrence, and vaccine use; 3) introducing, distributing and harmonizing disease detection and control tools; 4) disseminating knowledge and training staff of relevant third countries; 5) interlinking different scientific disciplines which look at the problem from differrent angles. A coordinated research programme including key laboratories in Europe and neighbouring countries can address scientific questions of joint interest enabling the development of effective control measures, aimed at improving the EUs response to outbreaks of diseases.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: KBBE-2008-1-3-02 | Award Amount: 4.09M | Year: 2009
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the worlds most infectious diseases of livestock and continues to pose a significant threat to endemic and free regions alike. The impact of FMD on society and international trade is high, thereby demanding stringent prevention, surveillance and control plans taken up in crisis preparedness plans. On the other hand, there is a global increased demand for animal welfare and ethical considerations necessitating a decreased reliance on eradication of animals to control FMD virus (FMDV) spread, and on the use of animals for the regulatory testing of veterinary products. The project seeks to balance these apparently contracting viewpoints by addressing specific gaps in our knowledge on all aspects of FMD control to enable implementation of enhanced animal-sparing vaccine-based control strategies tailored to the needs of free and endemic settings. Consequently, four main objectives have been identified, including (i) the improvement of the quality of existing FMD vaccines and diagnostics, (ii) the refinement and replacement of in vivo FMD vaccine quality tests, (iii) the development of new generation FMD vaccines and diagnostics by applying cutting edge technologies, and (iv) the enhancement of our knowledge on FMDV spread and transmission following the use of high-potency monovalent or multivalent vaccines. The role of wildlife (buffalo, gazelles and wild boar) in FMDV maintenance and transmission will also be investigated. The project consists of seven different, yet interlinked, work packages (WP) each addressing one of the items listed in the Work Programme topic KBBE-2008-1-3-02, and led by renowned WP leaders with years of relevant experience in the field of FMD. As such, significant progress towards the objectives of the Communitys Animal Health Strategy (2007-2013), the European Technology Platform for Global Animal Health, and the Global Roadmap for improving the Tools to Control FMD in Endemic Settings will be achieved.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SFS-01b-2014 | Award Amount: 9.31M | Year: 2015
Helminth and ectoparasitic infections of ruminants and poultry have a huge impact on the biological efficiency of these vital food sources. Indiscriminate antiparasitic use has led to drug resistance across the globe. The main alternative to the dwindling supply of antiparasitics is vaccines. Here, in the PARAGONE project, findings from previous EU and other-funded projects on parasite vaccine development will be exploited to take a number of promising prototypes towards commercialisation. Partners from the Europe, China, Uruguay, SMEs and pharma, will directly move forward prototypes against the ruminant helminths Fasciola hepatica, Cooperia spp., Ostertagia ostertagi, Teladorsagia circumcincta and Haemonchus contortus and, the ectoparasitic mites, Psoroptes ovis (ruminants) and Dermanyssus gallinae (poultry). They will utilise novel adjuvants or delivery systems to maximise efficacy of some of the prototypes. Moreover, immunology studies will focus on pathogens that have previously proved problematic, often because they release immunosuppressive molecules that must be overcome for vaccines to work or because recombinant vaccines have failed to elicit protection observed with native prototypes. State-of-the-art technologies will be used to interrogate host/parasite interactions to define key signatures of protection that can be used to inform delivery systems that will enhance immunity, while other studies will define polymorphism in current vaccine candidates to ensure derived prototypes will be fit-for-purpose across geographic scales. Fundamental, is engagement of the scientists with pharma and other stakeholders (farmers, veterinarians, regulators) via many dissemination activities that will be used to obtain feedback on how the vaccines can be best deployed in the field. The output will be at least two prototypes to the point of uptake by pharma, government or philanthropic agencies, and a clear pathway to commercialisation for all prototypes studied.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2007-1-3-05 | Award Amount: 3.98M | Year: 2008
African swine fever (ASF) in EU member states is currently confined to Italy (Sardinia), it was recently introduced to Caucasian regions and it is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan African countries. In both the EC and Africa changes in the epidemiology of the disease have recently been observed, related to newly emerging strains of ASFV, emphasising the serious threat this disease represents to the growing pig farming sector in Africa and Europe. This project will provide new tools and strategies for the control of ASF in Africa and reduce the risk of importation and/or spread of the disease in EU member states The project will evaluate the current ASF epidemiology in Africa, develop and validate a generic risk assessment for the introduction of ASF into EU countries and subsequent control strategies. The project will also develop and validate new antibody and nucleic acid-based diagnostic tools for ASF, including front line and pen-side tests, which will be supplied to diagnostic facilities in Africa and the Animal Health Laboratories in the EU for the early detection of potential ASFV incursions, in particular by the newly emerging strains. Additionally the project will study the interaction of ASFV and host genes following experimental infection with a view to obtaining attenuated recombinant virus strains that may be potential future candidates for a vaccine and the characterization of pig immune mechanisms relevant for survival following infection with ASFV. The new strategies and the tools developed within this project will be transferred to African partners, and other interested countries, and established in these countries through local training/workshops and technology transfer.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: KBBE-2009-1-3-04 | Award Amount: 4.06M | Year: 2010
The proposal deals with the establishment of control measures for two major tick-borne diseases of small ruminants: theileriosis caused by Theileria lestoquardi and T. uilenbergi and babesiosis caused by Babesia ovis. The research programme aims at improving existing and producing new attenuated vaccines, designing subunit vaccines and capability building. To achieve these goals the proposal will assess parasite diversity and identify molecules associated with attenuation of parasite virulence to be included in the development of safe and efficacious live vaccines. For the design of a subunit vaccine parasite molecules will be identified and characterized involved in i) invasion of host cells ii) activation of CD4\ T cells and NK cells for the production of cytokines capable of activating macrophages for killing of the parasites and iii) activation of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes involved in killing of T. lestoquardi-infected leucocytes. For improvement of attenuated vaccines, a combination of vaccine with subunit vaccine will be examined for synergistic effects and reducing the need of a cold chain by improving storage conditions/ shelf life of vaccine will be aimed for. Groups working on Plasmodium are involved with the goal to benefit from the scientific and technological knowledge in this field and to translate it into tools and reagents for small ruminant piroplasms. Industrial expertise regarding vaccine development and delivery systems will be incorporated in the whole project. The impact of the vaccine to be produced against these emerging tick-borne diseases will be enormous, as they pose a great threat to livestock production, and a contribution will be made that will meet critical Millennium development goals: food security, food safety, poverty alleviation, animal welfare and environmental sustainability.
Zheng Y.,Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute |
Zheng Y.,Lanzhou Institute of Husbandry and Pharmaceutical science
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2013
Argonaute proteins (AGOs) are mediators of gene silencing via recruitment of small regulatory RNAs to induce translational regression or degradation of targeted molecules. Platyhelminths have been reported to express microRNAs but the diversity of AGOs in the phylum has not been explored. Phylogenetic relationships of members of this protein family were studied using data from six platyhelminth genomes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all cestode and trematode AGOs, along with some triclad planarian AGOs, were grouped into the Ago subfamily and its novel sister clade, here referred to as Cluster 1. These were very distant from Piwi and Class 3 subfamilies. By contrast, a number of planarian Piwi-like AGOs formed a novel sister clade to the Piwi subfamily. Extensive sequence searching revealed the presence of an additional locus for AGO2 in the cestode Echinococcus granulosus and exon expansion in this species and E. multilocularis. The current study suggests the absence of the Piwi subfamily and Class 3 AGOs in cestodes and trematodes and the Piwi-like AGO expansion in a free-living triclad planarian and the occurrence of exon expansion prior to or during the evolution of the most-recent common ancestor of the Echinococcus species studied. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Jing Z.Z.,Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute
Bing du xue bao = Chinese journal of virology / [bian ji, Bing du xue bao bian ji wei yuan hui] | Year: 2012
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that play a central role in host cell recognition and responses to virus infection, leading to the production of interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines. In parallel, in order to establish an infection, viruses have to develop exclusively strategies to interfere with TLRs signaling, particularly some important adaptors activation such as MyD88, NF-kappaB, TRIF and IRFs, and suppress or escape host's antiviral immune response. In this paper, we review the latest findings on the various strategies used by viruses to modulate TLRs-mediated innate immune response, with special emphasis on immune evasion mechanism of VACV, HCV and HIV. By highlighting recent progress in these areas, we hope to convey a greater understanding of how viruses hamper TLRs signaling and how to overcome viral infection.
Zheng Y.,Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute |
Zheng Y.,Lanzhou Institute of Husbandry
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2013
Echinococcus species have been studied as a model to investigate parasite-host interactions. Echinococcus spp. can actively communicate dynamically with a host to facilitate infection, growth and proliferation partially via secretion of molecules, especially in terms of harmonization of host immune attacks. This review systematically outlines our current knowledge of how the Echinococcus species have evolved to adapt to their host's microenvironment. This understanding of parasite-host interplay has implications in profound appreciation of parasite plasticity and is informative in designing novel and effective tools including vaccines and drugs for the treatment of echinococcosis and other diseases. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Cao Y.,Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute
Expert Review of Vaccines | Year: 2014
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and rapidly spreading disease of cloven-hoofed animals. In most countries, animals are immunized with inactivated whole virus vaccines to control the spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV); however, there are safety and efficacy (especially, cell-mediated immunity) concerns. Many efforts are currently devoted to the development of effective vaccines by combining the application of protective antigens together with the search for specific and targeting adjuvants that maximizes the immunogenicity with a desired immune response. In this review, we outline previous studies performed with both traditional adjuvants as well as the most promising new generation adjuvants such as ligands for Toll-like receptors (TLRs) or different cytokines, focusing mostly on their efficacy when used with FMD vaccine, and somewhat on mechanisms by which adjuvants mediate their effects. © Informa UK, Ltd.