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Wu G.-Q.,Lanzhou University of Technology | Shui Q.-Z.,Lanzhou University of Technology | Wang C.-M.,Lanzhou Institute of Husbandry and Pharmaceutical Science | Zhang J.-L.,Lanzhou University | And 3 more authors.
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2015

Salinity is one of the major environmental factors, which limits crop productivity worldwide. To investigate sodium (Na+) uptake pathways in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) under mild salt conditions, in the present work, Na+ and potassium (K+) accumulation, Na+/K+ ratio, and Na+ and K+ net uptake rate in plants exposed to various concentrations of NaCl (0–50 mM) were analyzed in the absence or presence of KCl (10 and 50 mM) and K+ channel inhibitors Tetraethylammonium-Cl (TEA+, 5 and 10 mM), CsCl (Cs+, 3 and 6 mM) and BaCl2 (Ba2+, 5 and 10 mM). The results showed that high concentration (50 mM) of KCl significantly reduced Na+/K+ ratios in shoot and root of sugar beet in the absence or presence of NaCl. 10 or 50 mM KCl also decreased Na+ net uptake rate, or had no effects on it at 5, 10, and 50 mM NaCl, while enhanced K+ net uptake rate with external NaCl concentration at 5 and 25 mM. It seemed that high external K+ levels could maintain lower Na+/K+ ratio in sugar beet by enhancing K+ uptake and restricting Na+ uptake. Both 5 and 10 mM TEA+, which are considered to be a blocker of K+ channels, had no significant effects on net uptake rates of Na+ and K+ in sugar beet in the absence or presence of NaCl. However, 3 or 6 mM Cs+, which is also known to be an inhibitor of the K+ inward-rectifying channel (AKT1), led to significant reduction of K+ net uptake rate but did not affect Na+ net uptake rate in the presence of NaCl. 5 or 10 mM Ba2+, which is known as another blocker of K+ channel and transporter (HKT), not only reduced Na+ net uptake rate but also decreased K+ net uptake rate (except at 25 mM NaCl) in sugar beet at 5–50 mM NaCl. It is clear that Na+ uptake in sugar beet is very sensitive to Ba2+ but insensitive to TEA+ or Cs+, and that K+ uptake is sensitive to Cs+ or Ba2+, whereas it is insensitive to TEA+. We proposed that the AKT1 may mediate K+ uptake and HKT1 may mediate Na+ uptake in sugar beet at 5–50 mM NaCl. © 2015, Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.

Zheng Y.,Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute | Zheng Y.,Lanzhou Institute of Husbandry and Pharmaceutical Science | Zheng Y.,University of Nottingham | Cai X.,Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute | Bradley J.E.,University of Nottingham
RNA Biology | Year: 2013

miRNAs, a subclass of small regulatory RNAs, are present from ancient unicellular protozoans to parasitic helminths and parasitic arthropods. The miRNA-silencing mechanism appears, however, to be absent in a number of protozoan parasites. Protozoan miRNAs and components of their silencing machinery possess features different from other eukaryotes, providing some clues on the evolution of the RNA-induced silencing machinery. miRNA functions possibly associate with neoblast biology, development, physiology, infection and immunity of parasites. Parasite infection can alter host miRNA expression that can favor both parasite clearance and infection. miRNA pathways are, thus, a potential target for the therapeutic control of parasitic diseases. © 2013 Landes Bioscience.

Wu G.-Q.,Lanzhou University of Technology | Wang C.-M.,Lanzhou Institute of Husbandry and Pharmaceutical Science | Su Y.-Y.,Lanzhou University of Technology | Zhang J.-J.,Lanzhou University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Soil Science and Plant Nutrition | Year: 2014

Drought is a major environmental factor limiting the production of crops. Drought tolerance of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivars in terms of growth and inorganic and organic solute accumulation was analyzed in this study. Four-week-old seedlings of three cultivars, "Gantang7", "SD13829" and "ST21916", differing in drought tolerance, were treated with different degrees of drought stress. Plant shoots and roots were harvested at 5 d after stress and subjected to analysis. Drought significantly reduced shoot fresh weight and water content in the three cultivars, though the least reduction was found in "ST21916". Either decrease or no change in sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) concentrations was observed in the three cultivars as an effect of drought, whereas a higher root Na+ and a lower root K+ concentration was noted in "Gantang7". Root calcium (Ca2+) concentration significantly increased in "Gantang7" exposed to moderate and severe drought. Severe drought also caused a significant increase in the proline level in "SD13829" but not in "Gantang7" and "ST21916". Under drought stress, soluble sugar concentrations significantly increased in both "Gantang7" and "SD13829" whilst remaining unchanged in "ST21916". It is clear that Na+, K+ and soluble sugars are major contributors to osmotic adjustment (OA), while Ca2+ and proline have minor contributions to OA in all three cultivars. According to our comprehensive assessment of drought tolerance, it is shown that "ST21916" is more tolerant to drought than the other two cultivars. Therefore, our results suggest that "ST21916" may be more suitable for planting in arid and semi-arid regions. © 2014 © 2014 Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition.

Zheng Y.,Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute | Zheng Y.,Lanzhou Institute of Husbandry and Pharmaceutical Science
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

Argonaute proteins (AGOs) are mediators of gene silencing via recruitment of small regulatory RNAs to induce translational regression or degradation of targeted molecules. Platyhelminths have been reported to express microRNAs but the diversity of AGOs in the phylum has not been explored. Phylogenetic relationships of members of this protein family were studied using data from six platyhelminth genomes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all cestode and trematode AGOs, along with some triclad planarian AGOs, were grouped into the Ago subfamily and its novel sister clade, here referred to as Cluster 1. These were very distant from Piwi and Class 3 subfamilies. By contrast, a number of planarian Piwi-like AGOs formed a novel sister clade to the Piwi subfamily. Extensive sequence searching revealed the presence of an additional locus for AGO2 in the cestode Echinococcus granulosus and exon expansion in this species and E. multilocularis. The current study suggests the absence of the Piwi subfamily and Class 3 AGOs in cestodes and trematodes and the Piwi-like AGO expansion in a free-living triclad planarian and the occurrence of exon expansion prior to or during the evolution of the most-recent common ancestor of the Echinococcus species studied. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Jiang Y.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Jiang Y.,CSIRO | Jiang Y.,Northwest University, China | Xie M.,BGI Shenzhen | And 85 more authors.
Science | Year: 2014

Sheep (Ovis aries) are a major source of meat, milk, and fiber in the form of wool and represent a distinct class of animals that have a specialized digestive organ, the rumen, that carries out the initial digestion of plant material. We have developed and analyzed a high-quality reference sheep genome and transcriptomes from 40 different tissues. We identified highly expressed genes encoding keratin cross-linking proteins associated with rumen evolution. We also identified genes involved in lipid metabolism that had been amplified and/or had altered tissue expression patterns. This may be in response to changes in the barrier lipids of the skin, an interaction between lipid metabolism and wool synthesis, and an increased role of volatile fatty acids in ruminants compared with nonruminant animals.

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