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Messner J.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Schulz P.S.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Taccardi N.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Kuhlmann S.,LANXESS Chemical China Co. | Wasserscheid P.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg
Chemical Communications | Year: 2014

The isomerisation reaction of 1,4-dichlorobenzene leading to the thermodynamically favoured and technically desired 1,3-dichlorobenzene has been studied comparing highly acidic chloroaluminate melts with organic imidazolium and alkali metal ions. Interestingly, the inorganic melts show much higher reactivity and full recyclability if small AlCl3 losses are compensated and the reaction is carried out under slight HCl pressure. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014. Source


Yuan X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang C.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Gao S.,LANXESS Chemical China Co. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2016

Peroxide curing of brominated butyl rubber (BIIR) is an attractive topic, but the degradation of BIIR during the curing is a drawback needed to be overcome. Coagent assisted peroxide curing system is an attractive and effective choice in order to increase the crosslink density of rubbers. 1,2-polybutadiene (1,2-PB) is used as a crosslinking coagent for the curing of BIIR by dicumyl peroxide (DCP), and the effect of 1,2-PB on the curing characteristics, crosslink density, and mechanical properties is investigated. The addition of 1,2-PB affects the curing characteristics of BIIR compound and significantly increases the crosslink density of BIIR vulcanizates. With increasing 1,2-PB content, the tensile strength and stresses at a given extension of BIIR vulcanizates increase, but the elongation at break decreases. A stress-softening effect of the carbon black filled BIIR vulcanizates is observed and becomes more pronounced with increasing 1,2-PB content. The addition of 1,2-PB increases the stress relaxation index of BIIR. GPC and 13C-NMR results indicate 1,2-PB participates in the crosslinking reaction, and the existence of 1,2-PB component in the insoluble fraction of BIIR/1,2-PB vulcanizates is confirmed by solid-state 13C-NMR. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Liu G.,Qingdao University of Science and Technology | Hoch M.,LANXESS Chemical China Co. | Wrana C.,Lanxess Deutschland GmbH | Kulbaba K.,Lanxess Deutschland GmbH | And 3 more authors.
Polymer Testing | Year: 2014

A much more elegant method using three groups of solvent mixtures was employed to determine the Hansen three-dimensional solubility parameters (HSPs) of hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR). The HSPs obtained by this way are comparable with previous work. The Flory-Rehner relationship was used to investigate the effects of the crosslink density and the molar volume of solvent on the swelling response of the HNBR matrix. Both of these factors have a significant effect on the swelling volume in high swelling conditions (small Ra and Mc values) while the swelling curves show the characteristic reversed S-shape. The swelling volumes of HNBR (Therban 2568) in solvents and solvent mixtures have been calculated quantitatively by the Flory-Rehner relationship and correlated with the energy difference (Ra). The calculated swelling volumes decrease with increasing Ra values and also show the characteristic reversed S-shape, which correlate well with the experimental values. Therefore, it is expected that the swelling behavior of HNBR based vulcanizates in mixed fluids, taking bio-fuels and bio-based service fluids as examples, may now be predicted quantitatively. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Xu P.,Jiangnan University | Ma P.,Jiangnan University | Hoch M.,LANXESS Chemical China Co. | Arnoldi E.,Lanxess Deutschland GmbH | And 3 more authors.
Polymer Degradation and Stability | Year: 2016

The application range of poly(lactide), PLA, films is limited due to the brittleness and notch-sensitivity. In this work, thin films with balanced properties were fabricated by melt blowing of PLA and poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) blends. The film thickness is dependent on the taken-up speed and reached to around 10 μm at the taken-up speed over 14 m/min. The presence of EVA not only significantly enhanced the tensile toughness and notch-resistance of the PLA films but also retained high transmittance. The films exhibited anisotropic mechanical performances which were correlated to the micro-morphology differences between the take-up direction (DD) and the transversal direction (TD) as characterized by atomic force microscope. In addition, the EVA with 80 wt% VA units showed better overall modification effect on the PLA films than the EVA with 60 wt% VA units. Superior mechanical properties of PLA/EVA (80/20) blends such as tensile strength of 50-60 MPa, elongation at break up to 230% and tear strength of 85 kN/m were achieved in the DD direction. Meanwhile, balanced properties were also achieved in TD direction. Moreover, a transmittance of around 90% was obtained for the PLA/EVA films which are comparable to neat PLA films. A high enough VA unit content is crucial for superior mechanical properties and high transparency. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Liu G.,Qingdao Technological University | Hoch M.,LANXESS Chemical China Co. | Liu S.,Qingdao Technological University | Kulbaba K.,Lanxess Deutschland GmbH | Qiu G.,Qingdao Technological University
Polymer Bulletin | Year: 2015

Equilibrium swelling data with a range of solvents for non-filled cured rubber samples were used to determine Hansen three-dimensional solubility parameters (HSPs) of seven HNBR grades with nominal acrylonitrile contents from 21 to 49 % using the HSPiP computer program. The results showed that the increase of acrylonitrile contents for HNBR grades led to increase of polar component (δp) and hydrogen bonding component (δh), but with little changes of dispersion component (δd). By using the so far obtained HSPs it is possible to explain and predict the swelling behaviors of the fully formulated HNBR-based vulcanizates in industrial oils (IRM 903 was selected for testing), in a reference bio-fuel (Fuel C was selected for testing) and in bio-diesel (FAME was selected for testing). In these liquids, the volume swellings decreased with increasing of Ra values (calculated by HSPs), and to a certain extent, can be calculated with a modified Flory–Rehner equation by assuming that fillers would not swell in question. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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