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Hadmersleben, Germany

Longin C.F.H.,University of Hohenheim | Gowda M.,University of Hohenheim | Muhleisen J.,University of Hohenheim | Ebmeyer E.,KWS LOCHOW GMBH | And 6 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2013

Key message: Commercial heterosis for grain yield is present in hybrid wheat but long-term competiveness of hybrid versus line breeding depends on the development of heterotic groups to improve hybrid prediction. Detailed knowledge of the amount of heterosis and quantitative genetic parameters are of paramount importance to assess the potential of hybrid breeding. Our objectives were to (1) examine the extent of midparent, better-parent and commercial heterosis in a vast population of 1,604 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) hybrids and their parental elite inbred lines and (2) discuss the consequences of relevant quantitative parameters for the design of hybrid wheat breeding programs. Fifteen male lines were crossed in a factorial mating design with 120 female lines, resulting in 1,604 of the 1,800 potential single-cross hybrid combinations. The hybrids, their parents, and ten commercial wheat varieties were evaluated in multi-location field experiments for grain yield, plant height, heading time and susceptibility to frost, lodging, septoria tritici blotch, yellow rust, leaf rust, and powdery mildew at up to five locations. We observed that hybrids were superior to the mean of their parents for grain yield (10.7 %) and susceptibility to frost (-7.2 %), leaf rust (-8.4 %) and septoria tritici blotch (-9.3 %). Moreover, 69 hybrids significantly (P < 0.05) outyielded the best commercial inbred line variety underlining the potential of hybrid wheat breeding. The estimated quantitative genetic parameters suggest that the establishment of reciprocal recurrent selection programs is pivotal for a successful long-term hybrid wheat breeding. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Albrecht T.,Institute for Crop Science and Plant Breeding | Oberforster M.,Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety AGES | Kempf H.,SECOBRA Saatzucht GmbH | Ramgraber L.,Saatzucht Josef Breun GmbH & Co. KG | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Applied Genetics | Year: 2015

Global wheat production will benefit from cultivars showing genetic resistance to preharvest sprouting (PHS). Working on PHS resistance is still challenging due to the lack of simple protocols for the provocation of symptoms for appropriate trait differentiation under highly variable environmental conditions. Therefore, the availability of molecular markers for enhancing PHS resistance in breeding lines is of utmost importance. Genome-wide association mapping was performed to unravel the genetics of PHS resistance in a diversity panel of 124 winter wheat genotypes using both random and targeted marker locus approaches. Data for grain germination tests, spike wetting treatments, and field sprouting damage measurements of grains were collected in 11, 12, and four environments, respectively. Twenty-two quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked with 40 markers were detected for the three traits commonly used for assessing the PHS resistance of cultivars. All but five QTL on chromosomes 1B, 1D (two QTL), 3D, and 5D showed locations similar to previous studies, including prominent QTL on chromosomes 2BS, 3AS, and 4AL. The highest retrieval rate across environments was found for QTL on chromosomes 1D, 2BS, 3D, 4AL, and 7B. The study identified genomic signatures useful for marker-assisted improvement of PHS resistance not only in European breeding programs, but of global significance. © 2015, Institute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan. Source

Miedaner T.,University of Hohenheim | Zhao Y.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Gowda M.,University of Hohenheim | Longin C.F.H.,University of Hohenheim | And 4 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2013

Background: Septoria tritici blotch is an important leaf disease of European winter wheat. In our survey, we analyzed Septoria tritici blotch resistance in field trials with a large population of 1,055 elite hybrids and their 87 parental lines. Entries were fingerprinted with the 9 k SNP array. The accuracy of prediction of Septoria tritici blotch resistance achieved with different genome-wide mapping approaches was evaluated based on robust cross validation scenarios. Results: Septoria tritici blotch disease severities were normally distributed, with genotypic variation being significantly (P < 0.01) larger than zero. The cross validation study revealed an absence of large effect QTL for additive and dominance effects. Application of genomic selection approaches particularly designed to tackle complex agronomic traits allowed to double the accuracy of prediction of Septoria tritici blotch resistance compared to calculation methods suited to detect QTL with large effects.Conclusions: Our study revealed that Septoria tritici blotch resistance in European winter wheat is controlled by multiple loci with small effect size. This suggests that the currently achieved level of resistance in this collection is likely to be durable, as involvement of a high number of genes in a resistance trait reduces the risk of the resistance to be overcome by specific pathogen isolates or races. © 2013 Miedaner et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Jesske T.,University of Gottingen | Jesske T.,Lantmannen SW Seed Hadmersleben GmbH | Olberg B.,University of Gottingen | Schierholt A.,University of Gottingen | Becker H.C.,University of Gottingen
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2013

Resynthesized (Resyn) Brassica napus L. can be used to broaden the genetic diversity and to develop a heterotic genepool for rapeseed hybrid breeding. Domesticated vegetable types are usually employed as B. oleracea parents. We sought to evaluate the potential of wild species as parents for Resyn lines. Fifteen Resyn lines were derived by crossing wild B. oleracea ssp. oleracea and oilseed B. rapa, and 29 Resyn lines were generated from 10 wild Brassica species (B. bourgaei, B. cretica, B. incana, B. insularis, B. hilarionis, B. macrocarpa, B. montana, B. rupestris, B. taurica, B. villosa). Genetic distances were analyzed with AFLP markers for 71 Resyn lines from wild and domesticated B. oleracea, and compared with 55 winter, spring, vegetable, and Asian B. napus genotypes. The genetic distances clearly showed that Resyn lines with wild species provide a genetic diversity absent from the breeding material or Resyn lines from domesticated species. Forty-two Resyn lines were crossed with one or two winter oilseed rape testers, resulting in 64 hybrids that were grown in one year and four locations in Germany and France. The correlation between hybrid yield and genetic distance was slightly negative (r = -0. 29). Most of the hybrids with Resyn lines from wild B. oleracea were lower in yield than hybrids with Resyn lines from domesticated B. oleracea. It is promising that Resyn lines descending from unselected wild B. oleracea accessions produced high-yielding hybrids when crossed with adapted genotypes: these Resyn lines would be suited to develop heterotic pools in hybrid breeding. © 2013 The Author(s). Source

Wurschum T.,University of Hohenheim | Langer S.M.,University of Hohenheim | Longin C.F.H.,University of Hohenheim | Korzun V.,KWS LOCHOW GMBH | And 7 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2013

Modern genomics approaches rely on the availability of high-throughput and high-density genotyping platforms. A major breakthrough in wheat genotyping was the development of an SNP array. In this study, we used a diverse panel of 172 elite European winter wheat lines to evaluate the utility of the SNP array for genomic analyses in wheat germplasm derived from breeding programs. We investigated population structure and genetic relatedness and found that the results obtained with SNP and SSR markers differ. This suggests that additional research is required to determine the optimum approach for the investigation of population structure and kinship. Our analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) showed that LD decays within approximately 5-10 cM. Moreover, we found that LD is variable along chromosomes. Our results suggest that the number of SNPs needs to be increased further to obtain a higher coverage of the chromosomes. Taken together, SNPs can be a valuable tool for genomics approaches and for a knowledge-based improvement of wheat. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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