Chen G.,Chalmers University of Technology |
Jansson H.,Chalmers University of Technology |
Lustrup K.F.,Lantmannen R and D |
Swenson J.,Chalmers University of Technology
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2012
The formation and distribution of ice upon the freezing of fresh breadcrumb were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. Three types of wheat bread containing different amounts of sugar and dietary fiber were measured. Various frozen states were produced through freezing with different cooling rates (0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 30 °C/min) to -30 °C; they were then analyzed and compared by thawing with the same heating rate (10 °C/min) to 20 °C. All DSC heating traces exhibited dual endotherms in the temperature range for the melting of ice: The major transition was attributed to the ice formed in the large crumb pores (gas cells) and the minor event, which preceded the major endotherm, was assigned primarily to the ice formed in the nanometer-sized pores within the gluten-starch matrix. The size of ice crystals in the two classes of pores was estimated using the modified Gibbs-Thompson relation. The distributions of ice in these pores depended on the bread compositions. It is concluded that the complex crumb porosity plays an essential role in shaping the activities of water and ice in the breadcrumb. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Tanwir F.,University of Aarhus |
Fredholm M.,Lantmannen R and D |
Gregersen P.L.,University of Aarhus |
Fomsgaard I.S.,University of Aarhus
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013
Benzoxazinoids are important phytochemicals found in wheat and rye that are associated with plant resistance against pathogens, and recent studies have emphasized the potential health-promoting role of these compounds i.e. anti-cancer, anti-allergy and anti-inflammation. Accordingly, an understanding of their distribution in seeds and the effect of different processing techniques on their transformation will be helpful in identifying the mechanisms of their production and distribution and will support the ongoing efforts to utilize these compounds in health-promoting food products. The analysis of seed fractions obtained from the milling of wheat and rye showed significantly higher concentrations of these bioactive compounds in the germ than in the other fractions, i.e. the bran and endosperm. Di-hexoses of 2,4-dihydroxy-1, 4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIBOA-glc-hexose) and 2-hydroxy-1, 4-benzoxazin-3-one (HBOA-glc-hexose) were the predominant compounds found in the different wheat and rye seed fractions followed by DIBOA-glc and DIBOA. The soaking and boiling of three rye-based breakfast cereals resulted in considerable changes in the benzoxazinoid contents. The soaking of pearled rye promoted the conversion of DIBOA-glc-hexose into DIBOA-glc. When these cereals were boiled, the increase in the DIBOA-glc content was much lower than that observed for soaking. For rye flakes, the pattern of these benzoxazinoids was different from that in pearled rye seeds. A considerable amount of the benzoxazinoids was also leached into the water during soaking or boiling. This study contributes to the understanding of the underlying processes involved in the biochemical changes of benzoxazinoids and will be the basis for future studies on other food-processing techniques. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Adamsson V.,Uppsala University |
Reumark A.,Lantmannen R and D |
Fredriksson I.-B.,Bollnas Heart Clinic |
Hammarstrom E.,Bollnas Heart Clinic |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Internal Medicine | Year: 2011
Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a healthy Nordic diet (ND) on cardiovascular risk factors.Design and subjects. In a randomized controlled trial (NORDIET) conducted in Sweden, 88 mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects were randomly assigned to an ad libitum ND or control diet (subjects' usual Western diet) for 6 weeks. Participants in the ND group were provided with all meals and foods. Primary outcome measurements were low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and secondary outcomes were blood pressure (BP) and insulin sensitivity (fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance). The ND was rich in high-fibre plant foods, fruits, berries, vegetables, whole grains, rapeseed oil, nuts, fish and low-fat milk products, but low in salt, added sugars and saturated fats.Results. The ND contained 27%, 52%, 19% and 2% of energy from fat, carbohydrate, protein and alcohol, respectively. In total, 86 of 88 subjects randomly assigned to diet completed the study. Compared with controls, there was a decrease in plasma cholesterol (-16%, P < 0.001), LDL cholesterol (-21%, P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (-5%, P < 0.01), LDL/HDL (-14%, P < 0.01) and apolipoprotein (apo)B/apoA1 (-1%, P < 0.05) in the ND group. The ND reduced insulin (-9%, P = 0.01) and systolic BP by -6.6 ± 13.2 mmHg (-5%, P < 0.05) compared with the control diet. Despite the ad libitum nature of the ND, body weight decreased after 6 weeks in the ND compared with the control group (-4%, P < 0.001). After adjustment for weight change, the significant differences between groups remained for blood lipids, but not for insulin sensitivity or BP. There were no significant differences in diastolic BP or triglyceride or glucose concentrations.Conclusions. A healthy ND improves blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity and lowers blood pressure at clinically relevant levels in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. © 2010 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.
Isaksson H.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences |
Tillander I.,Lantmannen R and D |
Andersson R.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences |
Olsson J.,The Good |
And 3 more authors.
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2012
Whole grain rye products have previously been shown to increase feelings of satiety for up to 8. h after intake under standardized conditions. This study was set out to investigate the sustainability of the satiating effect after regular consumption of breakfast meals with whole grain rye porridge or refined wheat bread. The study was randomized, cross-over and double-blind. Healthy subjects (n = 24) were randomly assigned to daily consumption of iso-caloric standardized breakfast meals with whole grain rye porridge or refined wheat bread for two 3-wk phases, separated by a wash out of 3-4. weeks. Each intervention phase had 3 scheduled visit days (days 1, 8 and 22) when appetite ratings (hunger, satiety and desire to eat) were registered for 24. h at standardized conditions. Orocecal transit time (salicylazosulfapyridine/sulfapyridine method) and breath hydrogen as an indicator of colonic fermentation were measured at day 8 of each 3-wk phase in a subgroup (n = 16). To investigate effects of breakfast on free-living food intake, 3-day weighed food diaries were self-registered during both intervention phases. Whole grain rye porridge breakfast resulted in higher ratings of satiety and lower hunger and desire to eat during 4. h post consumption compared to refined wheat bread breakfast (p < 0.001). This effect was sustained throughout the 3-wk study phases. Unlike previous studies, the effects did not persist into the afternoon (4-8. h). The orocecal transit times after consumption of both breakfasts were similar and in the range of 5-6. h. The rye porridge resulted in high levels of breath hydrogen 4-8. h after intake, showing extensive colonic fermentation. This was however not related to any changes in appetite during this time-period. There were no significant differences in self-reported macronutrient- and energy intake between diets. This study shows that the satiating effect of rye persists after repeated daily consumption for up to three weeks. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01117363. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.