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Olesen J.E.,University of Aarhus | Borgesen C.D.,University of Aarhus | Elsgaard L.,University of Aarhus | Palosuo T.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | And 13 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2012

The phenological development of cereal crops from emergence through flowering to maturity is largely controlled by temperature, but also affected by day length and potential physiological stresses. Responses may vary between species and varieties. Climate change will affect the timing of cereal crop development, but exact changes will also depend on changes in varieties as affected by plant breeding and variety choices. This study aimed to assess changes in timing of major phenological stages of cereal crops in Northern and Central Europe under climate change. Records on dates of sowing, flowering, and maturity of wheat, oats and maize were collected from field experiments conducted during the period 1985-2009. Data for spring wheat and spring oats covered latitudes from 46 to 64°N, winter wheat from 46 to 61°N, and maize from 47 to 58°N. The number of observations (site-year-variety combinations) varied with phenological phase, but exceeded 2190, 227, 2076 and 1506 for winter wheat, spring wheat, spring oats and maize, respectively. The data were used to fit simple crop development models, assuming that the duration of the period until flowering depends on temperature and day length for wheat and oats, and on temperature for maize, and that the duration of the period from flowering to maturity in all species depends on temperature only. Species-specific base temperatures were used. Sowing date of spring cereals was estimated using a threshold temperature for the mean air temperature during 10 days prior to sowing. The mean estimated temperature thresholds for sowing were 6.1, 7.1 and 10.1°C for oats, wheat and maize, respectively. For spring oats and wheat the temperature threshold increased with latitude. The effective temperature sums required for both flowering and maturity increased with increasing mean annual temperature of the location, indicating that varieties are well adapted to given conditions. The responses of wheat and oats were largest for the period from flowering to maturity. Changes in timing of cereal phenology by 2040 were assessed for two climate model projections according to the observed dependencies on temperature and day length. The results showed advancements of sowing date of spring cereals by 1-3 weeks depending on climate model and region within Europe. The changes were largest in Northern Europe. Timing of flowering and maturity were projected to advance by 1-3 weeks. The changes were largest for grain maize and smallest for winter wheat, and they were generally largest in the western and northern part of the domain. There were considerable differences in predicted timing of sowing, flowering and maturity between the two climate model projections applied. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Stenberg M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Engstrom L.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Wallenhammar A.-C.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Wallenhammar A.-C.,Hushallningssallskapet Konsult AB | And 2 more authors.
Organic Agriculture | Year: 2013

The efficiency of four different organic fertilisers applied to winter oilseed rape, before (early) or at the beginning of regrowth in spring (normal application time), was studied in two row spacing systems of 12 and 48 cm with inter row hoeing to provide strategies to optimise spring nitrogen (N) fertilisation to organic winter oilseed rape. Six annual field experiments were performed during 2005-2008 in south central Sweden. The following amendments, i.e., Vinass from yeast production, Biofer meat and bone meal, dairy slurry and chicken manure, were applied at a rate corresponding to 100 kg N ha-1. Crop N uptake, seed yield and oil content indicated greater and earlier N availability of Vinass after application compared with the other amendments. Yield increased by 1,300 kg ha-1 at early spring application (27 March) of Vinass and by 700 kg ha-1 when applied at normal application time (18-26 April). The yield increase was 400 kg ha-1 regardless of application time of Biofer, chicken manure and dairy slurry. The substantially greater yield increase in the Vinass application in relation to the other fertilisers demonstrated the yield potential when N is available earlier. The smaller effect on the yield by the other organic amendments indicated that the N release was not synchronised with the crop demand, and available too late during crop development to affect yield or less N was available due to N losses. Consequently, only Vinass can be recommended for spring application. The two row spacing systems tested can both be recommended, since yield levels were similar. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Sterk A.,Wageningen University | Sterk A.,Agrifirm Innovation Center | Johansson B.E.O.,Lantmannen Lantbruk | Taweel H.Z.H.,Agrifirm Innovation Center | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2011

The effects of an increasing proportion of crushed linseed (CL) in combination with varying forage type (grass or corn silage) and forage to concentrate ratio (F:C), and their interactions on milk fatty acid (FA) profile of high-producing dairy cows was studied using a 3-factor Box-Behnken design. Sixteen Holstein and 20 Swedish Red cows were blocked according to breed, parity, and milk yield, and randomly assigned to 4 groups. Groups were fed different treatment diets formulated from combinations of the 3 main factors each containing 3 levels. Forage type (fraction of total forage dry matter, DM) included 20, 50, and 80% grass silage, with the remainder being corn silage. The F:C (DM basis) were 35:65, 50:50, and 65:35, and CL was supplied at 1, 3, and 5% of diet DM. Starch and neutral detergent fiber content (DM basis) of the treatment diets ranged from 117 to 209g/kg and 311 to 388g/kg, respectively. Thirteen treatment diets were formulated according to the Box-Behnken design. During 4 experimental periods of 21 d each, all treatment diets were fed, including a repetition of the center point treatment (50% grass silage, 50:50F:C, 3% CL) during every period. Intake, production performance, and milk FA profile were measured, and response surface equations were derived for these variables. Shifting from 80% grass silage to 80% corn silage in the diet linearly increased dry matter intake (DMI), net energy for lactation (NEL) intake, cis-9,cis-12-C18:2 (C18:2n-6) intake, and milk yield, and linearly decreased cis-9,cis-12,cis-15-C18:3 (C18:3n-3) intake and milk fat content. Shifting from a high forage to a high concentrate diet linearly increased DMI, NEL intake, C18:2n-6 intake, and milk yield, and decreased milk fat content. Supplementation of CL linearly increased C18:3n-3 intake, but had no effect on DMI, NEL intake, milk yield, or milk fat content. Shifting from 80% grass silage to 80% corn silage linearly increased proportions of trans-10-C18:1 and C18:2n-6 in milk fat, whereas the proportions of trans-11,cis-15-C18:2 and C18:3n-3 linearly decreased. Significant interactions between CL supplementation and F:C were found for proportions of trans-10-C18:1, trans-15-C18:1, cis-15-C18:1, trans-11,cis-15-C18:2, and C18:3n-3 in milk fat, with the highest levels achieved when the diet contained 5% CL and a 35:65F:C ratio. The effect of supplementing CL on several milk FA proportions, including C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3, depends significantly on the F:C ratio and forage type in the basal diet. © 2011 American Dairy Science Association.

Oide S.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Bejai S.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Staal J.,Unit for Molecular Signal Transduction in Inflammation | Staal J.,Ghent University | And 3 more authors.
New Phytologist | Year: 2013

Pathogenesis-related protein 2 (PR2) is known to play a major role in plant defense and general stress responses. Resistance against the fungal pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans in Arabidopsis requires abscisic acid (ABA), which promotes the deposition of callose, a β-1,3-glucan polymer. Here, we examined the role of PR2 in callose deposition in relation to ABA treatment and challenge with L. maculans and Pseudomonas syringae. Characterization of PR2-overexpressing plants and the knockout line indicated that PR2 negatively affects callose deposition. Recombinant PR2 purified from Pichia pastoris showed callose-degrading activity, and a considerable reduction in the callose-degrading activity was observed in the leaf extract of the PR2 knockout line compared with the wild-type. ABA pretreatment before challenge with L. maculans concomitantly repressed PR2 and enhanced callose accumulation. Likewise, overexpression of an ABA biosynthesis gene NCED3 resulted in reduced PR2 expression and increased callose deposition. We propose that ABA promotes callose deposition through the transcriptional repression of PR2 in Arabidopsis challenged by L. maculans and P. syringae. Callose by itself is likely to act antagonistically on salicylic acid (SA) defense signaling, suggesting that PR2 may function as a modulator of callose- and SA-dependent defense responses. © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

Soderstrom M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Soderstrom M.,Sweco Position AB | Borjesson T.,Lantmannen Lantbruk | Pettersson C.-G.,Lantmannen Lantbruk | And 2 more authors.
Precision Agriculture | Year: 2010

This paper examines the prediction of within-field differences in protein in malting barley at a late growth stage using the Yara N-Sensor and prediction of its regional variation with medium resolution satellite images. Field predictions of protein in the crop at a late growth stage could be useful for harvest planning, whereas regional prediction of barley quality before harvest would be useful for the grain industry. The project was carried out in central Sweden where the variation in protein content of malting barley has been documented both within fields and regionally. Scanning with an N-sensor and crop sampling were carried out in 2007 and 2008 at several fields. The regional data used consisted of weather data, quality analyses of the malting barley delivered to the major farmers' co-operative, crops grown and field boundaries. Satellite scenes (SPOT 5 and IRS-P6 LISS-III) were acquired from a date as close as possible to the N-sensor scans. Reasonable partial least squares (PLS) models could be constructed based on weather and reflectance data from either the N-sensor or satellite. The models used mainly reflectance data, but the weather data improved them. Better field models could be created with data from the N-sensor than from the satellite image, but a local satellite-based model based on a simple ratio (middle infrared/green) in combination with weather was useful in regional prediction of malting barley protein. A regional prediction model based only on the weather variables explained about half the variation in recorded protein. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Soderstrom M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Borjesson T.,Lantmannen Lantbruk | Roland B.,Rural economics and Agricultural Society of Skaraborg | Stadig H.,Rural economics and Agricultural Society of Skaraborg
Precision Agriculture | Year: 2014

Within-field variations in the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) in oat grain were investigated at two farms in south-west Sweden. At Sarestad farm (sampled 2012), where one of two fields studied was ploughed annually and the other was under no-till cultivation, the DON concentration varied between 28 and 1 755 ppb. The level was higher (270–5 000 ppb) at Entorp farm (sampled 2013). Within-field prediction models for DON were constructed using a data mining method (multi-variate adaptive regression splines) with satellite data, an ECa sensor and airborne laser scanning. At Sarestad, the no-till field had higher DON content, with the highest values in silty patches in the otherwise clayey soil. Sensor data related to soil and crop conditions had the potential to describe the DON variability within fields. The covariance between DON content and auxiliary data differed at Entorp farm, where high DON values (>2 000 ppb) were found in clayey parts of the field. This pattern was attributed to poor drainage with recurring waterlogging. Within these clayey parts, the highest DON contents coincided with the highest biomass density. South-west Sweden received much less rainfall in 2013 than in 2012, which may have resulted in different DON patterns in relation to soil types. In 2012, more permeable silty soils apparently promoted growth, biomass production and DON production, whereas in 2013 a poorly drained clayey soil with high water-holding capacity favoured development of high DON concentrations. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Engstrom L.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Stenberg M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Wallenhammar A.-C.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Wallenhammar A.-C.,Hushallningssallskapet Konsult AB | And 2 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2014

Increased knowledge on how to use organic amendments will increase crop productivity in organic farming. The effect of autumn and spring application of organic fertilisers on the yield of organic winter oilseed rape (WOR) with various preceding crops was studied at eight organic farm sites in southern Sweden in 2008/2009 and 2009/2010, in a two-factor experiment. Autumn N fertilisation (F1) comprised Biofer, applied at 0 and 50kgNha-1, and spring N fertilisation (F2) comprised increasing rates of Vinasse (0, 50, 100, 150, 200kgNha-1). How soil mineral N, N uptake in late autumn and early spring, plant-available soil N during spring and summer (SoilNplant) and yield level was associated with economically optimum N fertilisation rate (OptN) in spring was investigated. Autumn N application (Biofer) only increased yield by 140-410kgha-1 at three sites, when there was a risk of low plant-available soil N during spring and summer, due to dry weather conditions or N immobilisation in soil caused by residues of previous grass ley crops. Nitrogen fertilisation during autumn cannot be recommended due to the high levels of soil mineral N in late autumn and risk for N leaching. Spring N fertilisation (Vinasse) can be recommended when the preceding crop is a grass ley, as yield increases were the highest, 820-1400kgha-1. Spring N fertilisation had no impact on yield and cannot be recommended when the preceding crop is pasture or clover, providing that N uptake during autumn is great and/or if N availability in soil during spring and summer is not likely to be limited by e.g. dry weather conditions and weeds. Regression analysis confirmed that plant-available soil N was associated with OptN rate in spring and showed that factors such as soil mineral N, N uptake in late autumn, SoilNplant and yield level must be considered when estimating spring N fertilisation. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Van Der Fels-Klerx H.J.,Wageningen University | Goedhart P.W.,Wageningen University | Elen O.,Norwegian Institute for Agricultural And Environmental Research Bioforsk | Borjesson T.,Lantmannen Lantbruk | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2012

Climate change will affect mycotoxin contamination of feed and food. Mathematical models for predicting mycotoxin concentrations in cereal grains are useful for estimating the impact of climate change on these toxins. The objective of the current study was to construct a descriptive model to estimate climate change impacts on deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination of mature wheat grown in northwestern Europe. Observational data from 717 wheat fields in Norway, Sweden, Finland, and The Netherlands were analyzed, including the DON concentrations in mature wheat, agronomical practices, and local weather. Multiple regression analyses were conducted, and the best set of explanatory variables, mainly including weather factors, was selected. The final model included the following variables: flowering date, length of time between flowering and harvest, wheat resistance to Fusarium infection, and several climatic variables related to relative humidity, temperature, and rainfall during critical stages of wheat cultivation. The model accounted for 50% of the variance, which was sufficient to make this model useful for estimating the trends of climate change on DON contamination of wheat in northwestern Europe. Application of the model in possible climate change scenarios is illustrated. © International Association for Food Protection.

Soderstrom M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Borjesson T.,Lantmannen Lantbruk
Precision Agriculture 2013 - Papers Presented at the 9th European Conference on Precision Agriculture, ECPA 2013 | Year: 2013

The within-field variability of the toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) in oats grain was investigated in two fields in southwestern Sweden - one field had been ploughed while no-till cultivation was practiced in the other field. The DON concentrations varied between 28 and 1,755 μg/kg. A MARSplines prediction model for DON was constructed based on data from a satellite image, an ECa sensor and airborne laser scanning. DON levels tended to be highest in patches with silty soils in the otherwise clayey fields. All sensor data provided useful input to the model, indicating that sensor data that are related to soil and crop conditions have a potential to describe the DON variability within-fields.

Lindblad M.,National Food Administration | Borjesson T.,Lantmannen Lantbruk | Hietaniemi V.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Elen O.,Norwegian Institute for Agricultural And Environmental Research Bioforsk
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2012

The relationship between weather data and agronomical factors and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in oats was examined with the aim of developing a predictive model. Data were collected from a total of 674 fields during periods of up to 10 years in Finland, Norway and Sweden, and included DON levels in the harvested oats crop, agronomical factors and weather data. The results show that there was a large regional variation in DON levels, with higher levels in one region in Norway compared with other regions in Norway, Finland and Sweden. In this region the median DON level was 1000 ng g-1 and the regulatory limit for human consumption (1750 ng g-1) was exceeded in 28% of the samples. In other regions the median DON levels ranged from 75 to 270 ng g-1, and DON levels exceeded 1750 ng g-1 in 3-8% of the samples. Including more variables than region in a multiple regression model only increased the adjusted coefficient of determination from 0.17 to 0.24, indicating that very little of the variation in DON levels could be explained by weather data or agronomical factors. Thus, it was not possible to predict DON levels based on the variables included in this study. Further studies are needed to solve this problem. Apparently the infection and/or growth of DON producing Fusarium species are promoted in certain regions. One possibility may be to study the species distribution of fungal communities and their changes during the oats cultivation period in more detail. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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