Tielmann M.,Gesellschaft fur Marine Aquakultur |
Tielmann M.,University of Kiel |
Schulz C.,Gesellschaft fur Marine Aquakultur |
Schulz C.,University of Kiel |
Meyer S.,Landwirtschaftskammer Schleswig Holstein
Aquacultural Engineering | Year: 2017
In this work performance parameters of larval pike-perch (Sander lucioperca) reared under four different light intensities (100, 500, 1000 and 2500 lx) until 21 days post hatch (dph) were investigated. As performance parameters change in length and weight, swim bladder inflation, feed consumption, natural mortality, stress induced mortality and RNA-DNA ratio were measured. Aim was to investigate the influence of light intensity on pike-perch performance during the first three weeks of larval rearing. Significant differences were found in natural and stress induced mortality as well as in weight growth. No single light exposure level combined optimal performance of all tested performance parameters. Highest light intensity of 2500 lx showed good weight growth but an increase in stress induced mortality. Bright light of 500 and 1000 lx intensity was found to improve growth and stress mortality whereas dim light conditions of 100 lx showed significantly lower natural mortality. Thus data suggested that most favorable illumination during larval pike-perch rearing comprise a tradeoff between optimal natural mortality under dim light conditions (100 lx) or optimal larval growth and stress resistance under bright light conditions (500 and 1000 lx). It is shown that high light intensities during larval rearing can be beneficial for pike-perch rearing if offspring supply is not limited. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.
Effects of biofumigation using Brassica juncea and Raphanus sativus in comparison to disinfection using Basamid on apple plant growth and soil microbial communities at three field sites with replant disease
Yim B.,Leibniz University of Hanover |
Yim B.,Julius Kuhn Institute |
Hanschen F.S.,Leibniz Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops |
Wrede A.,Landwirtschaftskammer Schleswig Holstein |
And 4 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2016
Aims: The effects of biofumigation with Brassica juncea ‘Terra Plus’ and Raphanus sativus ‘Defender’ in comparison to Basamid on apple plant growth and on soil microbial communities were studied at three sites affected by replant disease under field conditions. Methods: Apple rootstocks were planted on differently treated plots to evaluate the effect of the treatments on plant growth under field and greenhouse conditions. The glucosinolates in biofumigant plant organs and their breakdown products in soils were determined. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints were performed with 16S rRNA gene and ITS fragments amplified from total community DNA extracted from different soils. Results: The highest glucosinolate concentrations were found in inflorescences of both biofumigant plant species with no differences between sites. The most abundant degradation product in soil biofumigated with B. juncea was 2-propenyl isothiocyanate, while in soil treated with R. sativus only 4-(methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate was detected. Effects of biofumigation were recorded to be stronger on fungi than on bacteria. Growth of apple rootstocks was positively affected by the treatments in a site-dependent manner. Conclusions: The effects of biofumigation evaluated by the apple plant growth were site-dependent and might result from suppression of soil-borne pests and pathogens, changes in soil microbial community compositions, and additional nutrients from the incorporated biomass. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland
Ziegler A.,Julius Kuhn Institute |
Golecki B.,Landwirtschaftskammer Schleswig Holstein |
Kastirr U.,Julius Kuhn Institute
Journal of Phytopathology | Year: 2013
Sequence analysis has shown that diseased wheat plants in Northern Germany were infected with the New York strain of soil-borne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV). This is in contrast to the only other confirmed site of SBWMV occurring in Germany, where a variant closely related to the Nebraska-type strain of SBWMV was found. The results indicate that there have been at least two separate introductions of SBWMV strains to Germany. A survey is required to study the actual distribution of SBWMV in Germany. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Obenauf U.,Landwirtschaftskammer Schleswig Holstein |
Borchardt I.,Landwirtschaftskammer Schleswig Holstein |
Lubkowitz C.,Landwirtschaftskammer Schleswig Holstein |
Kock C.,Landwirtschaftskammer Schleswig Holstein
Journal fur Kulturpflanzen | Year: 2014
The Landwirtschaftskammer Schleswig Holstein and the Helmstorf estate are testing precision farming technologies in the framework of the "on farm research project". Precision farming requires a significant level of technical, human and monetary resources. The economic benefits of precision farming could not be shown in every case within the project; this was also true for site-specific nitrogen fertilization using the N-sensor. Using only the online approach with the N-Sensor was partially successful. Improvements are expected while using the combination of N-sensor and yield potential maps. In future constant fertilization will no longer be applied but based on site-specific yield potential in an offline approach. The statistical evaluation of the results for site specific management against conventional practice is still ongoing. The complex multivariate "site-specific production" approach requires quantifying the effects of additional factors like soil variability, different seed rates and site-specific fertilization. This paper will focus on the problems of complex solutions as they occur in site-specific management.
Current and historic developments of Piétrain pigs in Schleswig-Holstein using pedigree analysis [Aktuelle und historische Entwicklungen beim Piétrainschwein in Schleswig-Holstein anhand einer Pedigreeanalyse]
Lopez V.G.,University of Kiel |
Hinrichs D.,University of Kiel |
Bielfeldt J.C.,Schweineherdbuchzucht Schleswig Holstein E.V |
Borchers N.,Landwirtschaftskammer Schleswig Holstein |
Thaller G.,University of Kiel
Zuchtungskunde | Year: 2011
The objective of this study was to analyse the population structure of the Piétrain pigs in Schleswig-Holstein and to estimate the effective population size. The data available consisted of Piétrain pigs of the herdbook population in Schleswig-Holstein born between 1978 and 2009. For the estimation of effective population size only ancestors of the active population in December 2009 were used (2,887 animals). Three methods were applied to estimate effective population size: the formula given by HILL (1979) to estimate drift effective population size for each year, and, inbreeding coefficients to estimate inbreeding effective population size obtained from the numerator relationship matrix (NRM) or from uncertain parentage matrix (UPM). The latter applies a probabilistic correction for unknown ancestors. Drift effective population size has slightly decreased between 1990 and 2006. The harmonic mean across years resulted in an effective population size of 105 pigs. The effective population size estimated by NRM was higher at around 190 animals. Correction by unknown ancestors (UPM) led to an effective population size of 118 animals. The major differences between the methods NRM and UPM showed the influence of imported boars. Additional, the variance of the family size in the male-female path varied extremely due to the extensively use of some boars. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.
Lena V.,University of Kiel |
Hlnrichs D.,University of Kiel |
Tolle K.-H.,Landwirtschaftskammer Schleswig Holstein |
Blobel K.,HIPPO Blobel |
Krieter J.,University of Kiel
Zuchtungskunde | Year: 2010
The aim of this study was to determine factors that impact on the activity of juvenile horses during rearing. Furthermore, the correlation between the intensity of activity and endurance of juvenile horses were examined. A total of 58 trotters of two birth cohorts on one stud were available. The activity of the animals was measured with pedometers. The activities of the horses from both birth cohorts decreased from November to February and increased again from March to May. It could be ascertained differences in the individual activity. The paired weanlings conformed each other in the height of activity. Horses that were reared in the single boxes displayed significandy lower activities than those reared in group housing. Analysis of endurance during the long-term-method revealed both a negative correlation between activity and heart rate (r (animal) = 0,41) and activity and concentration of blood lactate (r(animal) = -0,31). Highly active animals showed a better endurance. The results of this study show that the degree of activity of juvenile horses impacts considerably and measurable on endurance parameters. The analyses reveal the importance of adequate exercise and activity during the rearing of a horse for its future resistance to physical load. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.
Xue C.,University of Kiel |
Erley G.S.a.,University of Kiel |
Rucker S.,University of Kiel |
Koehler P.,Leibniz Institute |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science | Year: 2016
Late application of nitrogen (N) fertilizers at heading or anthesis is usually performed to produce wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with high bread-making quality. However, increasing energy costs and ecological problems due to N losses call for efficient and simplified N fertilization strategies. This study aimed to investigate the effect of late N fertilization on grain protein quality and thus baking quality and to evaluate if similar wheat quality can be maintained without late N application. Field experiments with two winter wheat cultivars differing in quality groups were conducted. The fertilization treatments comprised a rate of 220 kg N ha-1 applied in two or three doses (referred to as split N application), and 260 kg N ha-1 applied in four doses (additional late N fertilization) with different N fertilizer types. The results show that although split N application had no effect on grain protein concentration (GPC), it affected N partitioning in the grain, increasing mainly the concentration and proportion of the glutenin fraction. As a result, baking quality was improved by split N application. Late N fertilization enhanced GPC and the relative abundance of certain high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS). However, it had no effect on N partitioning in the grain and did not further improve baking quality. No obvious differences were found between N fertilizer types on grain yield and quality. The N fertilization effect was more pronounced on the wheat cultivar whose baking quality was more dependent on protein concentration. In evaluating baking quality of wheat flour, gliadin and glutenin proportions were better correlated with loaf volume than the overall protein concentration. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Group housing for lactating sows with electronically controlled crates: Effect performance, behavior, space and labor requirement [Gruppenhaltung mit Einzelbuchtsteuerung für laktierende Sauen: Auswirkungen auf Leistungs- und Verhaltensparameter und Arbeitszeit]
Bohnenkamp A.-L.,University of Kiel |
Meyer C.,Landwirtschaftskammer Schleswig Holstein |
Muller K.,Landwirtschaftskammer Schleswig Holstein |
Krieter J.,University of Kiel
Zuchtungskunde | Year: 2013
The aim of the present study was an evaluation of a group housing system (GH) for lactating sows in comparison to conventional single housing pens with a farrowing crate (SH). In total, 21 cross-bred gilts and 103 sows with 1415 weaned piglets were compared in 11 batches. The sows were housed one week before farrowing. The SH had 6 pens (2.00 m × 2.60 m) with a conventional farrowing crate. The GH had 6 single pens (1.80 m × 2.60 m) with farrowing crate, electronically controlled gates and a 13 m2 running area between the pens. GH-sows could move freely between one dedicated pen and the running area. Sows in GH were retained in the crates three days ante partum (a.p.) until one day post partum (p.p.). Due to a flexible step, the GH-piglets remained in then-pens for five days p.p.. On average all piglets (GH, SH) were weaned at the age of 26 days. Litter information, sow condition, feed intake and behavioural parameters were recorded as well as space and labor requirement. The GH had no influence on the reproductive traits with the exception of lower weaning weights. The number of weaned piglets was similar with 11.4 piglets per litter in both housing systems. The average weaning weights were 7.6 kg in the GH and 8.1 kg in the SH (p < 0.05). The piglet mortality rate did not differ significantly between both farrowing systems. (GH: 14.7% vs. SH: 15.7%). Sows had a similar body condition score (GH: 3.2 vs. SH: 3.1) seven days a.p" At weaning, GH-sows had a lower BCS 2 with 2.2 (vs. SH: 2.4; p < 0.05). This development could not be verified by the decrease in back fat thickness. GH-sows spent 20-22 h/d until 5 days p.p. and stayed half of the day in the pen between days 11-26 p.p.. The total frequency and duration time of nursings did not differ significantly between the GH and SH (p > 0.05). However, GH-sows had a significantly higher number of missing piglets (running area: 2.3 piglets vs. pen: 1.7 piglets) and of foreign piglets (running area: 0.9 piglets vs. 0.2 piglets) when they suckled their piglets in the running area. During the mük flow phase, only 1 piglet was absent. Out of 12 gilts in each farrowing system, 9 GH-gilt and 2 SH-gilts were weaned before lactation day 26 because of damaged teats. A relation was expected between the number of foreign piglets in the running area and the early weaned gilts and the energy deficit of the sows. The GH needed 1.6 m2 more space compared to the SH and resulted in a better structuring of the different areas in GH (feeding, defecating, lying). GH-sows were fixed during parturition and could be fixed during servicing of the piglets. These circumstances ensured labor safety but restricted the nest-building behavior of the sows. The labor requirement for services at birth, castration and vaccination was similar in GH and SH. Sows and piglets used the common running area as a defecating zone and no manual cleaning of the GH was necessary after removing the flexible steps. © Verlage Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.
Imke T.,University of Kiel |
Kathrin N.,University of Kiel |
Karin M.,Landwirtschaftskammer Schleswig Holstein |
Krieter J.,University of Kiel
Zuchtungskunde | Year: 2010
The aim of the present study was to analyse the application of infrared thermography to measure body temperature of sows. In an experimental study, the body surface temperature of 42 sows in the farrowing compartment was recorded at the eye, the teats, the ear and the vulva two times a day. Contemporaneously measured rectal temperature was used as a reference. The maximum temperature was the best parameter to describe the body surface temperature in the 2,834 thermograms. Healthy and disease days showed significant different temperature curves within the observation period. Furthermore, the relationship to rectal temperature was not linear for all localisations, in particular ear and teats snowed a linear quadratic relationship. Highest residual correlations up to 0.5 were found between teats or vulva and rectal temperature, respectively. Infrared thermography provides the opportunity to collect regular body surface temperatures that can be used for early disease detection. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart Lactating sows, thermography, disease detection.