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Lopez V.G.,University of Kiel | Hinrichs D.,University of Kiel | Bielfeldt J.C.,Schweineherdbuchzucht Schleswig Holstein E.V | Borchers N.,Landwirtschaftskammer Schleswig Holstein | Thaller G.,University of Kiel
Zuchtungskunde | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to analyse the population structure of the Piétrain pigs in Schleswig-Holstein and to estimate the effective population size. The data available consisted of Piétrain pigs of the herdbook population in Schleswig-Holstein born between 1978 and 2009. For the estimation of effective population size only ancestors of the active population in December 2009 were used (2,887 animals). Three methods were applied to estimate effective population size: the formula given by HILL (1979) to estimate drift effective population size for each year, and, inbreeding coefficients to estimate inbreeding effective population size obtained from the numerator relationship matrix (NRM) or from uncertain parentage matrix (UPM). The latter applies a probabilistic correction for unknown ancestors. Drift effective population size has slightly decreased between 1990 and 2006. The harmonic mean across years resulted in an effective population size of 105 pigs. The effective population size estimated by NRM was higher at around 190 animals. Correction by unknown ancestors (UPM) led to an effective population size of 118 animals. The major differences between the methods NRM and UPM showed the influence of imported boars. Additional, the variance of the family size in the male-female path varied extremely due to the extensively use of some boars. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart. Source

Yim B.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Yim B.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Hanschen F.S.,Leibniz Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops | Wrede A.,Landwirtschaftskammer Schleswig Holstein | And 4 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2016

Aims: The effects of biofumigation with Brassica juncea ‘Terra Plus’ and Raphanus sativus ‘Defender’ in comparison to Basamid on apple plant growth and on soil microbial communities were studied at three sites affected by replant disease under field conditions. Methods: Apple rootstocks were planted on differently treated plots to evaluate the effect of the treatments on plant growth under field and greenhouse conditions. The glucosinolates in biofumigant plant organs and their breakdown products in soils were determined. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints were performed with 16S rRNA gene and ITS fragments amplified from total community DNA extracted from different soils. Results: The highest glucosinolate concentrations were found in inflorescences of both biofumigant plant species with no differences between sites. The most abundant degradation product in soil biofumigated with B. juncea was 2-propenyl isothiocyanate, while in soil treated with R. sativus only 4-(methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate was detected. Effects of biofumigation were recorded to be stronger on fungi than on bacteria. Growth of apple rootstocks was positively affected by the treatments in a site-dependent manner. Conclusions: The effects of biofumigation evaluated by the apple plant growth were site-dependent and might result from suppression of soil-borne pests and pathogens, changes in soil microbial community compositions, and additional nutrients from the incorporated biomass. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland Source

Xue C.,University of Kiel | Erley G.S.a.,University of Kiel | Rucker S.,University of Kiel | Koehler P.,Leibniz Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science | Year: 2016

Late application of nitrogen (N) fertilizers at heading or anthesis is usually performed to produce wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with high bread-making quality. However, increasing energy costs and ecological problems due to N losses call for efficient and simplified N fertilization strategies. This study aimed to investigate the effect of late N fertilization on grain protein quality and thus baking quality and to evaluate if similar wheat quality can be maintained without late N application. Field experiments with two winter wheat cultivars differing in quality groups were conducted. The fertilization treatments comprised a rate of 220 kg N ha-1 applied in two or three doses (referred to as split N application), and 260 kg N ha-1 applied in four doses (additional late N fertilization) with different N fertilizer types. The results show that although split N application had no effect on grain protein concentration (GPC), it affected N partitioning in the grain, increasing mainly the concentration and proportion of the glutenin fraction. As a result, baking quality was improved by split N application. Late N fertilization enhanced GPC and the relative abundance of certain high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS). However, it had no effect on N partitioning in the grain and did not further improve baking quality. No obvious differences were found between N fertilizer types on grain yield and quality. The N fertilization effect was more pronounced on the wheat cultivar whose baking quality was more dependent on protein concentration. In evaluating baking quality of wheat flour, gliadin and glutenin proportions were better correlated with loaf volume than the overall protein concentration. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Imke T.,University of Kiel | Kathrin N.,University of Kiel | Karin M.,Landwirtschaftskammer Schleswig Holstein | Krieter J.,University of Kiel
Zuchtungskunde | Year: 2010

The aim of the present study was to analyse the application of infrared thermography to measure body temperature of sows. In an experimental study, the body surface temperature of 42 sows in the farrowing compartment was recorded at the eye, the teats, the ear and the vulva two times a day. Contemporaneously measured rectal temperature was used as a reference. The maximum temperature was the best parameter to describe the body surface temperature in the 2,834 thermograms. Healthy and disease days showed significant different temperature curves within the observation period. Furthermore, the relationship to rectal temperature was not linear for all localisations, in particular ear and teats snowed a linear quadratic relationship. Highest residual correlations up to 0.5 were found between teats or vulva and rectal temperature, respectively. Infrared thermography provides the opportunity to collect regular body surface temperatures that can be used for early disease detection. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart Lactating sows, thermography, disease detection. Source

Ziegler A.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Golecki B.,Landwirtschaftskammer Schleswig Holstein | Kastirr U.,Julius Kuhn Institute
Journal of Phytopathology | Year: 2013

Sequence analysis has shown that diseased wheat plants in Northern Germany were infected with the New York strain of soil-borne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV). This is in contrast to the only other confirmed site of SBWMV occurring in Germany, where a variant closely related to the Nebraska-type strain of SBWMV was found. The results indicate that there have been at least two separate introductions of SBWMV strains to Germany. A survey is required to study the actual distribution of SBWMV in Germany. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

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