Heinrichs C.,Landwirtschaftskammer Nordrhein Westfalen Pflanzenschutzdienst
Gesunde Pflanzen | Year: 2011
The beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii is widely spread among sugar beet habitats with narrow crop rotation (especially in the warmer region of the Rhine Gorge). Without a consistent control management the economic efficiency of sugar beet cultivation under the current framework requirements is threatened. This problem is solved by the biological control using nematode-resistant oil radish or mustard which has been established during the last 25 years. Population of nematodes can be reduced up to 70% while maintaining the sugar beet yield on a high level. Big plot studies achieved a yield increase of 10-15% thereby confirming the economic efficiency of nematode control measures using resistant undersown crops. Another starting point for problem solving lies within the cultivation of nematode-resistant sugar beet varieties. Currently, the sugar content and sugar yield of these varieties lie below the level of the standard varieties. Without nematode infection reduction in grain yield of approximately 10% must be accepted. Thus, cultivation is only economically reasonable in the infection areas. Heterodera schachtii is decreased by 60-70%. Breeding of nematode-resistant sugar beet varieties has been the last step up to now. Already with low latent nematode infection these varieties clearly outbalance previous grain yields. A study series in 2009 showed an increase in sugar yield by an average of 10-18% compared to the normal variety by cultivation of tolerant beet with latent nematode infection. Despite further developments in control management of tolerant/resistant beet, the culturing of resistant undersown crops remains up to date as these varieties, although only to a small degree, suffer from Heterodera schachtii. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.