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Ganzelmeier H.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Schmidt K.,Landwirtschaftliches Technologiezentrum Augustenberg | Droge K.,Pflanzenschutzamt der Landwirtschaftskammer Niedersachsen | Lamprecht S.,Pflanzenschutzamt der Landwirtschaftskammer Niedersachsen | And 2 more authors.
Journal fur Kulturpflanzen | Year: 2012

The FuE project aimed at testing new techniques to reduce drift in orchards of the Alten Landes (NS) and the fruit growing area around Lake Constance (BW), and assess their suitability as to water-friendly plant protection by accompanying examinations. The sprayers used in NS were dominated by a double row, overarching mode of operation, whereas the sprayers in BW were designed for single row treatment because of the extensive spread of hail protection nets. In both growing areas a technically identical sprayer with axial flow fan for single row treatment (air exit outlets and sensor controlled nozzle regulation were covered) was used as reference sprayer. The sprayers used on nine fruit farms (NS: 4, BW: 5) were equipped with the following facilities to reduce drift: • Single and double row tunnel with re-circulation of not deposited plant protection products (recycling) • Reflector system with integrated recycling system, which redirects the spray jet coming out of the treated row • Fan with different air conduction, sensor controlled nozzle regulation and airflow adjustment Testing in practice has demonstrated that single row sprayers and also double row sprayers are suited for use in regions with plenty of water. Regarding the deposition of spray liquid in orchards it became clear that only tunnel sprayers, which are distinguished by a shielded application zone, achieve extremely even and continuously high spray deposits of approximately 20% in relation to the application rate. Single row sprayers with fan unit and electrically adjustable shields on the fan outlet generated an average of 16 to 18% of spray liquid deposits. The drift results showed that all sprayers could achieve a drift reduction of more than 95%. Precondition would be the use of coarse, drift-reducing nozzles and the reduction of the airflow rate in the initial 5 rows close to water bodies. Sprayers equipped with a recycling system or sensor technology bring about an additional economical benefit due to their rate of saved product. The single row tunnel sprayer was able to achieve an average reduction of approx. 50% by flexibly adjusting to row widths. The double row tunnel sprayers achieved approx. a 19% reduction on average. Sensor technology accomplished reductions of 12 to 19%. Biological efficiency of all sprayers was sufficient. However, a certain unsteadiness cannot be entirely excluded for reflector and sensor controlled sprayers. From an economic point of view, the single row tunnel sprayer pays already from an orchard size of 8- 10 ha and is thus comparable with single row sprayers. The double row technologies are only worth the effort on coherent areas from 20 ha upwards. Their utilization was very demanding compared to single row sprayers but lead to a clout increase of approx. 80%. Coarse nozzles created more spraying spots. This aspect is presently only relevant regarding direct marketing of products and sorting without unloading in water. The results of water body monitoring confirmed mainly the high drift reduction of the tested recycling sprayer and of the sprayer equipped with cross flow fan and sensor technology. According to water body monitoring, the three other tested sprayers achieved a lower drift reduction rate. Water protection was not adhered to in all cases with drift reduction rates below 99%, calculated from water body monitoring.


Buczko U.,University of Rostock | Kuchenbuch R.O.,University of Rostock | Ubelhor W.,Landwirtschaftliches Technologiezentrum Augustenberg | Natscher L.,TU Munich
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2012

Assessment of trace element contents in soils is required in Germany (and other countries) before sewage sludge application on arable soils. The reliability of measured element contents is affected by measurement uncertainty, which consists of components due to (1) sampling, (2) laboratory repeatability (intra-lab) and (3) reproducibility (between-lab). A complete characterization of average trace element contents in field soils should encompass the uncertainty of all these components. The objectives of this study were to elucidate the magnitude and relative proportions of uncertainty components for the metals As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Tl and Zn in three arable fields of different field-scale heterogeneity, based on a collaborative trial (CT) (standardized procedure) and two sampling proficiency tests (PT) (individual sampling procedure). To obtain reference values and estimates of field-scale heterogeneity, a detailed reference sampling was conducted. Components of uncertainty (sampling person, sampling repetition, laboratory) were estimated by variance component analysis, whereas reproducibility uncertainty was estimated using results from numerous laboratory proficiency tests. Sampling uncertainty in general increased with field-scale heterogeneity; however, total uncertainty was mostly dominated by (total) laboratory uncertainty. Reproducibility analytical uncertainty was on average by a factor of about 3 higher than repeatability uncertainty. Therefore, analysis within one single laboratory and, for heterogeneous fields, a reduction of sampling uncertainty (for instance by larger numbers of sample increments and/or a denser coverage of the field area) would be most effective to reduce total uncertainty. On the other hand, when only intra-laboratory analytical uncertainty was considered, total sampling uncertainty on average prevailed over analytical uncertainty by a factor of 2. Both sampling and laboratory repeatability uncertainty were highly variable depending not only on the analyte but also on the field and the sampling trial. Comparison of PT with CT sampling suggests that standardization of sampling protocols reduces sampling uncertainty, especially for fields of low heterogeneity. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.


Hinrichs-Berger J.,Landwirtschaftliches Technologiezentrum Augustenberg | Muller G.,Landwirtschaftliches Technologiezentrum Augustenberg
Journal fur Kulturpflanzen | Year: 2011

The quarantine pest Monilinia fructicola (Winter) Honey was recorded in Germany in 2009 for the first time. In order to get an overall view of the dissemination of this pathogen a survey was conducted within a radius of 2 kilometers around the black berry orchard, where the pathogen was initially detected. For that, a convenient, inexpensive and reliable method for detection was developed based on a combination of cultural and morphological characteristics and a species specific PCR. By this method, M. fructicola was detected in about 4% of 1483 surveyed fruits with typical Monilia symptoms and in almost 17% of 121 orchards from which samples were taken.


Hinrichs-Berger J.,Landwirtschaftliches Technologiezentrum Augustenberg | Muller G.,Landwirtschaftliches Technologiezentrum Augustenberg
Journal fur Kulturpflanzen | Year: 2013

Apple leaf blotch disease caused by Marssonina coronaria (teleomorph Diplocarpon mali) was detected in several regions of Baden-Wuerttemberg. It was observed on numerous apple cultivars, especially in allotments and extensive grassland-orchards (Streuobstwiesen). M. coronaria is very probably not a "new" pathogen in Baden- Württemberg, since apple trees showing premature defoliation and typical leaf blotch symptoms were already observed before 2010.


Hinrichs-Berger J.,Landwirtschaftliches Technologiezentrum Augustenberg | Muller G.,Landwirtschaftliches Technologiezentrum Augustenberg
Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection | Year: 2010

In summer 2009 fungi belonging to the genus monilia were isolated from mummified blackberry fruits covered with white to grey fungal structures between the drupelets. Isolates were identified as monilia fructicola based on morphological and growth characteristics as well as two specific polymerase chain reactions. Next to the orchard where the infected black-berries have been grown we found M. fructicola on mummified fruits of cherry and plum trees.

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