Reykjavík, Iceland


Reykjavík, Iceland
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PubMed | The Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, University Utrecht, Biochimie metabolomique et proteomique, Copenhagen University and 8 more.
Type: | Journal: JIMD reports | Year: 2016

The analysis of acylcarnitines (AC) in plasma/serum is established as a useful test for the biochemical diagnosis and the monitoring of treatment of organic acidurias and fatty acid oxidation defects. External quality assurance (EQA) for qualitative and quantitative AC is offered by ERNDIM and CDC in dried blood spots but not in plasma/serum samples. A pilot interlaboratory comparison between 14 European laboratories was performed over 3 years using serum/plasma samples from patients with an established diagnosis of an organic aciduria or fatty acid oxidation defect. Twenty-three different samples with a short clinical description were circulated. Participants were asked to specify the method used to analyze diagnostic AC, to give quantitative data for diagnostic AC with the corresponding reference values, possible diagnosis, and advice for further investigations.Although the reference and pathological concentrations of AC varied among laboratories, elevated marker AC for propionic acidemia, isovaleric acidemia, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiencies were correctly identified by all participants allowing the diagnosis of these diseases. Conversely, the increased concentrations of dicarboxylic AC were not always identified, and therefore the correct diagnosis was not reach by some participants, as exemplified in cases of malonic aciduria and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency. Misinterpretation occurred in those laboratories that used multiple-reaction monitoring acquisition mode, did not derivatize, or did not separate isomers. However, some of these laboratories suggested further analyses to clarify the diagnosis.This pilot experience highlights the importance of an EQA scheme for AC in plasma.

Perner A.,Copenhagen University | Haase N.,Copenhagen University | Guttormsen A.B.,University of Bergen | Tenhunen J.,University of Tampere | And 29 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.42 is widely used for fluid resuscitation in intensive care units (ICUs), but its safety and efficacy have not been established in patients with severe sepsis. METHODS: In this multicenter, parallel-group, blinded trial, we randomly assigned patients with severe sepsis to fluid resuscitation in the ICU with either 6% HES 130/0.42 (Tetraspan) or Ringer's acetate at a dose of up to 33 ml per kilogram of ideal body weight per day. The primary outcome measure was either death or end-stage kidney failure (dependence on dialysis) at 90 days after randomization. RESULTS Of the 804 patients who underwent randomization, 798 were included in the modified intention-to-treat population. The two intervention groups had similar baseline characteristics. At 90 days after randomization, 201 of 398 patients (51%) assigned to HES 130/0.42 had died, as compared with 172 of 400 patients (43%) assigned to Ringer's acetate (relative risk, 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.36; P = 0.03); 1 patient in each group had end-stage kidney failure. In the 90-day period, 87 patients (22%) assigned to HES 130/0.42 were treated with renal-replacement therapy versus 65 patients (16%) assigned to Ringer's acetate (relative risk, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.80; P = 0.04), and 38 patients (10%) and 25 patients (6%), respectively, had severe bleeding (relative risk, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.94 to 2.48; P = 0.09). The results were supported by multivariate analyses, with adjustment for known risk factors for death or acute kidney injury at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with severe sepsis assigned to fluid resuscitation with HES 130/0.42 had an increased risk of death at day 90 and were more likely to require renal-replacement therapy, as compared with those receiving Ringer's acetate. (Funded by the Danish Research Council and others; 6S number, NCT00962156.) Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society.

PubMed | Reykjavik University and Landspitali
Type: | Journal: Computational and mathematical methods in medicine | Year: 2015

The variability in patient outcome and propensity for surgical complications in total hip replacement (THR) necessitates the development of a comprehensive, quantitative methodology for prescribing the optimal type of prosthetic stem: cemented or cementless. The objective of the research presented herein was to describe a novel approach to this problem as a first step towards creating a patient-specific, presurgical application for determining the optimal prosthesis procedure. Finite element analysis (FEA) and bone mineral density (BMD) calculations were performed with ten voluntary primary THR patients to estimate the status of their operative femurs before surgery. A compilation model of the press-fitting procedure was generated to define a fracture risk index (FRI) from incurred forces on the periprosthetic femoral head. Comparing these values to patient age, sex, and gender elicited a high degree of variability between patients grouped by implant procedure, reinforcing the notion that age and gender alone are poor indicators for prescribing prosthesis type. Additionally, correlating FRI and BMD measurements indicated that at least two of the ten patients may have received nonideal implants. This investigation highlights the utility of our model as a foundation for presurgical software applications to assist orthopedic surgeons with selecting THR prostheses.

PubMed | Reykjavik University and Landspitali
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European journal of translational myology | Year: 2016

Bone loss and a decrease in bone mineral density is frequently seen in patients with motor neuron lesion due to lack of mechanical stimulation. This causes weakening of the bones and a greater risk of fracture. By using functional electrical stimulation it is possible to activate muscles in the body to produce the necessary muscle force to stimulate muscle growth and potentially decrease the rate of bone loss. A longitudinal study was carried out on a single patient undergoing electrical stimulation over a 6 year period. The patient underwent a CT scan each year and a full three dimensional finite element model for each year was created using Mimics (Materialise) and Abaqus (Simulia) to calculate the risk of fracture under physiologically relevant loading conditions. Using empirical formulas connecting the bone mineral density to the stiffness and ultimate tensile stress of the bone, each element was assigned a unique material property, based on its density. The risk of fracture was estimated by calculating the ratio between the predicted stress and the ultimate tensile stress, should it exceed unity, failure was assumed. The results showed that the number of elements that were predicted to be at risk of failure varied between years.

PubMed | McGill University, Public Health Agency of Canada, University of Calgary, University of Bergen and 5 more.
Type: | Journal: BMC pediatrics | Year: 2015

Variation in birth registration criteria may compromise international comparisons of fetal and infant mortality. We examined the effect of birth registration practices on fetal and infant mortality rates to determine whether observed differences in perinatal and infant mortality rates were artifacts of birth registration or reflected true differences in health status.A retrospective population-based cohort study was done using data from Canada, United States, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden from 1995-2005. Main outcome measures included live births by gestational age and birth weight; gestational age-and birth weight-specific stillbirth rates; neonatal, post-neonatal, and cause-specific infant mortality.Proportion of live births <22 weeks varied substantially: Sweden (not reported), Iceland (0.00%), Finland (0.001%), Denmark (0.01%), Norway (0.02%), Canada (0.07%) and United States (0.08%). At 22-23 weeks, neonatal mortality rates were highest in Canada (892.2 per 1000 live births), Denmark (879.3) and Iceland (1000.0), moderately high in the United States (724.1), Finland (794.3) and Norway (739.0) and low in Sweden (561.2). Stillbirth:live birth ratios at 22-23 weeks were significantly lower in the United States (79.2 stillbirths per 100 live births) and Finland (90.8) than in Canada (112.1), Iceland (176.2) and Norway (173.9). Crude neonatal mortality rates were 83% higher in Canada and 96% higher in the United States than Finland. Neonatal mortality rates among live births 28 weeks were lower in Canada and United States compared with Finland. Post-neonatal mortality rates were higher in Canada and United States than in Nordic countries.Live birth frequencies and stillbirth and neonatal mortality patterns at the borderline of viability are likely due to differences in birth registration practices, although true differences in maternal, fetal and infant health cannot be ruled out. This study emphasises the need for further standardisations, in order to enhance the relevance of international comparisons of infant mortality.

Perner A.,Copenhagen University | Haase N.,Copenhagen University | Winkel P.,Copenhagen University | Guttormsen A.B.,University of Bergen | And 6 more authors.
Intensive Care Medicine | Year: 2014

Purpose: We assessed long-term mortality and hospitalisation in patients with severe sepsis resuscitated with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) or Ringer's acetate. Methods: This was an investigator-initiated, parallel-grouped, blinded randomised trial using computer-generated allocation sequence and centralised allocation data that included 804 patients with severe sepsis needing fluid resuscitation in 26 general intensive care units (ICUs) in Scandinavia. Patients were allocated to fluid resuscitation using either 6 % HES 130/0.42 or Ringer's acetate during ICU admission. We assessed mortality rates at 6 months, 1 year and at the time of longest follow-up and days alive and out of hospital at 1 year. Results: The vital status of all patients was obtained at a median of 22 (range 13-36) months after randomisation. Mortality rates in the HES versus Ringer's groups at 6 months were 53.3 (212/398 patients) versus 47.5 % (190/400) [relative risk 1.12; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.98-1.29; P = 0.10], respectively; at 1 year, 56.0 (223/398) versus 51.5 % (206/400) (1.09; 95 % CI 0.96-1.24; P = 0.20), respectively; at the time of longest follow-up, 59.8 (238/398) versus 56.3 % (225/400) (1.06; 95 % CI 0.94-1.20; P = 0.31), respectively. Percentage of days alive and out of hospital at 1 year in the HES versus Ringer's groups was 24 (0-87 days) versus 63 % (0-90) (P = 0.07). Conclusions: The long-term mortality rates did not differ in patients with severe sepsis assigned to HES 130/0.42 versus Ringer's acetate, but we could not reject a 24 % relative increased or a 4 % relative decreased mortality at 1 year with HES at the 95 % confidence level. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.

PubMed | Rigshospitalet, Landspitali, Landssjukrahusid and Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation
Type: | Journal: International journal of circumpolar health | Year: 2015

The Nordic Atlantic Cooperation (NORA) is an intergovernmental organization under the auspices of the Nordic Council of Ministers. The NORA region comprises Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Islands and western coastal areas of Norway. Historical, cultural and institutional links bind these nations together in multiple ways, and regional co-operation has in recent years become a focus of interest. This commentary addresses air medical services (AMSs) and available advanced hospital services in the 3 smallest NORA countries challenged sparse populations, hereafter referred to as the region. It seems likely that strengthened regional co-operation can help these countries to address common challenges within health care by exchanging know-how and best practices, pooling resources and improving the efficiency of care delivery. The 4 largest hospitals in the region, Dronning Ingrids Hospital in Nuuk (Greenland), Landsptali in Reykjavk and Sjkrahsi Akureyri, (both in Iceland) and Landssjkrahsi Trshavn on the Faroe Islands, have therefore undertaken the project Network for patient transport in the North-West Atlantic (in Danish: Netvrk for patienttransport i Vest-Norden). The goal of the project, and of this article, is to exchange information and provide an overview of current AMSs and access to acute hospital care for severely ill or injured patients in the 3 participating countries. Of equal importance is the intention to highlight the need for increased regional co-operation to optimize use of limited resources in the provision of health care services.

Olafsson G.B.,University of Iceland | Steingrimsdottir H.,Landspitali | Vidarsson B.,Landspitali | Halldorsdottir A.M.,Blood Bank
Laeknabladid | Year: 2016

Introduction: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the proliferation of monoclonal B-lymphocytes. MBL (monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis) is considered a precursor state of the disease. Although CLL is incurable it is an indolent disorder and often detected incidentally on routine blood counts. Until now little information has been available on CLL in Iceland, including the incidence, diagnosis, symptoms or MBL precursor state. Material and methods: This is a retrospective, descriptive study including CLL patients diagnosed in Iceland over the years 2003-2013. Registries of patients with a CLL diagnosis were obtained from the Icelandic Cancer Registry, Landspitali National University Hospital and the Medical Center in Mjódd. Medical records were reviewed for information on symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. Survival data and causes of death were obtained from national registries. Results: The number of patients diagnosed with CLL over the study period was 161 (109 males, 52 females). The calculated incidence was 4.55/100,000, and the age-standardized incidence was 3.00/100,000. Mean age at diagnosis was 70.9 years (range 35-96 years). The Icelandic Cancer Registry lacked information on 28 patients (17.4%). The initial diagnosis of CLL was obtained exclusively with flow cytometry in 47.2% of cases. Symptoms were present at diagnosis in 67 of 151 patients (44.4%). One third of the group received chemotherapy and the average time to treatment was 1.3 years. Five-year survival was 70% and median survival was 9.4 years. Elevated lymphocyte counts (≥4,0×109/L) in peripheral blood prior (0.1 to 13.4 years) to diagnosis of CLL was identified in 85 of 99 CLL patients (85.9%). Conclusion: The incidence of CLL in Iceland is similar to other Western countries. The registration of CLL cases in the Icelandic Cancer Registry must be improved, especially in cases where diagnosis is based solely on flow cytometry. Elevated lymphocyte counts were present in a large proportion of cases prior to the diagnosis of CLL.

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