Landscape Chemistry and Environmental Forensics Group

Moncada, Spain

Landscape Chemistry and Environmental Forensics Group

Moncada, Spain
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Andres-Costa M.J.,University of Valencia | Andreu V.,Landscape Chemistry and Environmental Forensics Group | Pico Y.,University of Valencia
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2017

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) started to develop significantly in the last 8 years due, in part, to the advance of liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS). Its initial objective ― to estimate the consumption of illicit drugs ― has been expanded to new psychoactive substances (NPS) and other human biomarkers of health, lifestyle and disease. The purpose of this review is to introduce recent methods and outstanding challenges in the application of LC–MS to these new targets, including target, suspect and non-target screening and, outline the workflows developed for discovering metabolites of NPS and biomarkers. Further, we discuss a number of specific methodological challenges that also deserve scrutiny in future research. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Andres-Costa M.J.,University of Valencia | Andreu V.,Landscape Chemistry and Environmental Forensics Group | Pico Y.,University of Valencia
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2016

Emerging drugs of abuse, belonging to many different chemical classes, are attracting users with promises of “legal” highs and easy access via internet. Prevalence of their consumption and abuse through wastewater-based epidemiology can only be realized if a suitable analytical screening procedure exists to detect and quantify them in water. Solid-phase extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC–QqTOF–MS/MS) was applied for rapid suspect screening as well as for the quantitative determination of 42 illicit drugs and metabolites in water. Using this platform, we were able to identify amphetamines, tryptamines, piperazines, pyrrolidinophenones, arylcyclohexylamines, cocainics, opioids and cannabinoids. Additionally, paracetamol, carbamazepine, ibersartan, valsartan, sulfamethoxazole, terbumeton, diuron, etc. (including degradation products as 3-hydroxy carbamazepine or deethylterbuthylazine) were detected. This method encompasses easy sample preparation and rapid identification of psychoactive drugs against a database that cover more than 2000 compounds that ionized in positive mode, and possibility to identify metabolites and degradation products as well as unknown compounds. The method for river water, influent and effluents samples was fully validated for the target psychoactive substances including assessment of matrix effects (-88–67.8%), recovery (42–115%), precision (<19%) and limits of quantification (1–100 ng L−1). Method efficiency was thoroughly investigated for a wide range of waste and surface waters. Robust and repeatable functioning of this platform in the screening, identification and quantification of traditional and new psychoactive drugs biomarkers and other water contaminants is demonstrated. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Andreu V.,Landscape Chemistry and Environmental Forensics Group | Gimeno-Garcia E.,University of Valencia | Pascual J.A.,Landscape Chemistry and Environmental Forensics Group | Vazquez-Roig P.,University of Valencia | Pico Y.,University of Valencia
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

The occurrence of 17 relevant pharmaceuticals and 7 heavy metals in the waters of the Pego-Oliva Marsh Natural Park (Valencia Community, Spain) were monitored. Thirty four zones (including the lagoon and the most important irrigation channels), covering the main land uses and water sources, were selected for sampling. Thirty three of them were contaminated with at least one pharmaceutical. Ibuprofen and codeine were the pharmaceuticals more frequently detected, in concentrations between 4.8 and 1.2 ng/L and a maximum of 59 ng/L and 63 ng/L, respectively.Regarding metals, Zn showed values under the detection limit in all the samples, while Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb were detected at concentrations lower than the WHO and EU maximum levels for drinking waters. Ni showed significant direct correlations with diazepam, norfloxacin, ofloxacin and fenofibrate, and inverse relationships with ibuprofen, at 99 and 95% of significance. Cu, Co and Cr also showed significant correlations with some of the pharmaceuticals. These interactions could favor the synergistic/antagonistic interactions among pharmaceuticals and metals in the marsh, which can affect its aquatic fauna and flora or even human health. The influences of the water sources, land uses and spatial distribution of both types of contaminants were also studied. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Landscape Chemistry and Environmental Forensics Group and University of Valencia
Type: | Journal: Journal of chromatography. A | Year: 2016

Emerging drugs of abuse, belonging to many different chemical classes, are attracting users with promises of legal highs and easy access via internet. Prevalence of their consumption and abuse through wastewater-based epidemiology can only be realized if a suitable analytical screening procedure exists to detect and quantify them in water. Solid-phase extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqTOF-MS/MS) was applied for rapid suspect screening as well as for the quantitative determination of 42 illicit drugs and metabolites in water. Using this platform, we were able to identify amphetamines, tryptamines, piperazines, pyrrolidinophenones, arylcyclohexylamines, cocainics, opioids and cannabinoids. Additionally, paracetamol, carbamazepine, ibersartan, valsartan, sulfamethoxazole, terbumeton, diuron, etc. (including degradation products as 3-hydroxy carbamazepine or deethylterbuthylazine) were detected. This method encompasses easy sample preparation and rapid identification of psychoactive drugs against a database that cover more than 2000 compounds that ionized in positive mode, and possibility to identify metabolites and degradation products as well as unknown compounds. The method for river water, influent and effluents samples was fully validated for the target psychoactive substances including assessment of matrix effects (-88-67.8%), recovery (42-115%), precision (<19%) and limits of quantification (1-100ngL(-1)). Method efficiency was thoroughly investigated for a wide range of waste and surface waters. Robust and repeatable functioning of this platform in the screening, identification and quantification of traditional and new psychoactive drugs biomarkers and other water contaminants is demonstrated.


PubMed | Landscape Chemistry and Environmental Forensics Group and University of Valencia
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2015

The occurrence of 17 relevant pharmaceuticals and 7 heavy metals in the waters of the Pego-Oliva Marsh Natural Park (Valencia Community, Spain) were monitored. Thirty four zones (including the lagoon and the most important irrigation channels), covering the main land uses and water sources, were selected for sampling. Thirty three of them were contaminated with at least one pharmaceutical. Ibuprofen and codeine were the pharmaceuticals more frequently detected, in concentrations between 4.8 and 1.2 ng/L and a maximum of 59 ng/L and 63 ng/L, respectively. Regarding metals, Zn showed values under the detection limit in all the samples, while Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb were detected at concentrations lower than the WHO and EU maximum levels for drinking waters. Ni showed significant direct correlations with diazepam, norfloxacin, ofloxacin and fenofibrate, and inverse relationships with ibuprofen, at 99 and 95% of significance. Cu, Co and Cr also showed significant correlations with some of the pharmaceuticals. These interactions could favor the synergistic/antagonistic interactions among pharmaceuticals and metals in the marsh, which can affect its aquatic fauna and flora or even human health. The influences of the water sources, land uses and spatial distribution of both types of contaminants were also studied.

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