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Val J.,2 Enterprise Way | Oliver D.,Biodiversity Conservation Section | Pennay M.,Landscape | John M.,Charles Sturt University | And 2 more authors.
Australian Zoologist | Year: 2012

Baseline surveys of reptiles, birds and small mammals that occur in Dune Mallee woodlands in the Lower Murray Darling catchment of south-western New South Wales were conducted at 60 sites between October 2007 and March 2008. These surveys comprise the first round of a catchmentwide monitoring programme to obtain a measure of the distribution and abundance of 21 priority threatened fauna species that inhabit Dune Mallee Woodlands. A total of 127 fauna species were recorded, which included 19 of the possible 21 threatened fauna species.The 127 species comprised 37 reptile species, 15 bat species, three small mammal species and 72 bird species.The mean species richness recorded at each three hectare survey site for birds was 14.7, reptiles 7.1, small ground dwelling mammals 0.5 and bats 3.0. Mean abundance for birds was 42.7, reptiles 13.1, small ground dwelling mammals 1.0 and microbats 3.7.These surveys represent the most comprehensive inventory of fauna of the Dune Mallee Woodlands of the Lower Murray Darling catchment. Furthermore, these surveys are a platform upon which to detect changes in abundance and persistence of priority threatened fauna species, as a way of measuring outcomes of property management agreements and offset reserves where land management has been enhanced by actions such as exotic herbivore removal and predator control. Source


Giovenzana V.,Landscape | Beghi R.,Landscape | Malegori C.,University of Milan | Civelli R.,Landscape | Guidetti R.,Landscape
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture | Year: 2014

The aim of this work was to identify the three most significant wavelengths able to discriminate in the field those grapes ready to be harvested using a simplified, handheld, and low-cost optical device. Nondestructive analyses were carried out on a total of 68 samples and 1,360 spectral measurements were made using a portable commercial vis/near-infrared spectrophotometer. Chemometric analyses were performed to extract the maximum useful information from spectral data and to select the most significant wavelengths. Correlations between the spectral data matrix and technological (total soluble solids) and phenolic (polyphenols) parameters were carried out using partial least square (PLS) regression. Standardized regression coefficients of the PLS model were used to select the relevant variables, representing the most useful information of the full spectral region. To support the variable selection, a qualitative evaluation of the average spectra and loading plot, derived from principal component analysis, was considered. The three selected wavelengths were 670 nm, corresponding to the chlorophyll absorption peak, 730 nm, equal to the maximum reflectance peak, and 780 nm, representing the third overtone of OH bond stretching. Principal component analysis and multiple linear regression were applied on the three selected wavelengths in order to verify their effectiveness. Simple equations for total soluble solids and polyphenols prediction were calculated. The results demonstrated the feasibility of a simplified handheld device for ripeness assessment in the field. © 2014 by the American Society for Enology and Viticulture. All rights reserved. Source


Giorgi A.,Landscape | Giorgi A.,University of Milan | De Marinis P.,Landscape | Granelli G.,Landscape | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2013

The Brazilian flora was widely used as source of food and natural remedies to treat various diseases. Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae), also known as annatto, urucù, or achiote, is a symbol for the Amazonian tribes that traditionally use its seeds as coloured ink to paint their bodies for religious ceremonies. The aim of this study was to investigate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profile of B. orellana fresh fruits (in vivo sampled), dried seeds, wood, bark, and leaves analyzed with Headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. A screening on phenolic content (the Folin-Ciocalteu assay) and antiradical activity (DPPH assay) of seeds was also conducted. In addition, the repellent properties of seed extracts against Aedes aegypti L. were investigated. Volatile compounds detected in B. orellana samples consisted mainly of sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, and arenes: α-humulene is the major volatile compound present in seed extracts followed by D-germacrene, γ-elemene, and caryophyllene. B. orellana proved to be a good source of antioxidants. Preliminary data on repellency against A. aegypti of three different dried seed extracts (hexane, ethanol, and ethanol/water) indicated a significant skin protection activity. A protection of 90% and 73% for hexane and ethanol/water extracts was recorded. © 2013 Annamaria Giorgi et al. Source

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