News Article | May 4, 2017
Researchers in Nigeria have developed a process that mixes chicken manure and an invasive weed together to create biofuel (Credit: buhanovskiy/Depositphotos ) They may give us an almost endless supply of eggs and nuggets, but industrial chicken farming comes with a tradeoff: it produces a lot of poop. To turn a con into a pro, researchers at Landmark University in Nigeria have developed a process that mixes chicken manure with an invasive weed to create a feedstock for making biofuel. All sorts of waste products are being considered as potential biofuel sources, including sawdust from logging, waste cooking oil, and even our own sewage. Assuming the process of recycling that material can produce more energy than it costs (a kink that's often still being figured out), it could be a great two-pronged approach to cleaning up the environment. The Landmark University team used an anaerobic process, where biomass is fed to microbes, and the gas they generate as they break it down can be harvested. Unfortunately, poultry poop doesn't create much of this biogas, but the researchers found that this could also help them take care of another environmental pest in the process: Mexican sunflower, an introduced plant species that's spreading as a weed across Africa. In the team's new process, the chicken waste is pre-treated before Mexican sunflower is added, and the whole mix is then fed to the anaerobic microbes. For every 8 kg (17.6 lb) of the stuff, more than 3 kg (6.6 lb) of biogas is produced, and as an added bonus, the solids left behind can then be used as a fertilizer. Importantly, the process creates more energy than it uses, so the researchers are pushing it as a viable way to generate bioenergy. The research was published in the journal Energy and Fuels.
Adetunji C.O.,Landmark University |
Adejumo I.O.,Landmark University
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2017
Fermented foods have good nutritional and health benefits, and are produced via solid state fermentation (SSF) technology. This study was carried out to produce a feed variety; mycomeat through the solid state fermentation using various agricultural by products for livestock feeding. Pleurotus sajor caju was cultured on different agricultural substrates at 27 ± 2 °C. The mutant strain was produced using random mutagenesis by exposing the wild strain to ultra violet radiation for 30 min. The moisture content of the different agricultural by products was maintained at 60 mg/g and apportioned into three sets: Treatment 1 contained agricultural substrate by product alone. Treatment: 2, in addition to agricultural by product, contained mutant strain of mushroom exposed to ultra violet radiation for 30 min. Treatment: 3, in addition to agricultural by product, contained wild strain of the mushroom. The set-up was incubated in the dark and monitored daily until full ramification was obtained. Strain improvement enhanced dry matter content of mycomeat produced from palm kernel meal (82.81 mg/g), the protein content and fat content followed a similar pattern. Strain improvement significantly (P = 0.1) reduced the NDF and ADF contents of mycomeat produced from palm kernel meal, while fungal treatment reduced the crude fiber content of mycomeat produced from palm kernel meal. Mycomeat produced by corn bran and palm kernel meal were adjudged the best. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Owamah H.I.,Landmark University |
Izinyon O.C.,University of Benin
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2015
Biogas kinetic models are often used to characterize substrate degradation and prediction of biogas production potential. Most of these existing models are however difficult to apply to substrates they were not developed for since their applications are usually substrate specific. Biodegradability kinetic (BIK) model and maximum biogas production potential and stability assessment (MBPPSA) model were therefore developed in this study for better understanding of the anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and maize husk for biogas production. Biodegradability constant (k) was estimated as 0.11d-1 using the BIK model. The results of maximum biogas production potential (A) obtained using the MBPPSA model were found to be in good correspondence, both in value and trend with the results obtained using the popular but complex modified Gompertz model for digesters B-1, B-2, B-3, B-4, and B-5. The (If) value of MBPPSA model also showed that digesters B-3, B-4, and B-5 were stable, while B-1 and B-2 were inhibited/unstable. Similar stability observation was also obtained using the modified Gompertz model. The MBPPSA model can therefore be used as an alternative model for anaerobic digestion feasibility studies and plant design. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Olufemi Adebesin B.,Landmark University
Indian Journal of Radio and Space Physics | Year: 2012
The present work emphasizes on foF2, the critical frequency of the F2 layer, variations during peak geomagnetic disturbances (Dst ≤ -100 nT) at the rise of solar cycle 23. Geomagnetic, interplanetary and solar wind parameters have been studied as well as foF2 data from five ionosonde stations in the Asian sector. The study shows that: (i) the observed enhancement immediately after sunset at Petropavlovsk compared with foF2 upwelling after sunrise at Magadan after the storm on 12 February 2000 revealed that there is no simultaneity in foF2 during the activity, (ii) the variation of foF2 along a line of fixed latitude, as it occurs at four stations during the 12 August 2000 storm, shows the diurnal anomaly, which depends on the season and epoch of the solar cycle, reaching maximum before sunrise, and (iii) at any latitude, factors other than solar radiance play an important role in determining the foF2 variations. The results seem to agree with earlier works. The morphology of both positive and negative phase storms is also discussed.
Owamah H.I.,Landmark University
Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management | Year: 2014
The ability of activated carbon from cassava peels to remove heavy metals like Cu(II) and Pb(II) from hospital wastewater was investigated. The study showed that a pH of 8 was the best for the sorption of both metal ions onto the biosorbent. The time-dependent experiments for the metal ions showed that the binding of the metal ions to the biomass was rapid and occurred within 20-120 min. Sorption efficiency increased with a rise in adsorbent dosage. It increased from 12 to 73 % for Pb(II) and 26 to 79 % for Cu(II) when the adsorbent dose increased from 2 to 12 g. An increase in temperature led to an increase in sorption for both metal ions. The Langmuir model showed that the biomass has a higher sorption capacity for Cu(II) than Pb(II), with q m = 5.80 mg g-1 for Pb(II) and 8.00 mg g-1 for Cu(II). The Freundlich isotherm K f was 1.4 for Pb(II) and 1.8 for Cu(II), indicating a preferential sorption of Cu(II) onto the biosorbent. Adsorption capacity was found to decrease with an increase in particle sizes. Sorption occurred by physical mechanisms and was mainly controlled by intraparticle diffusion. © 2013 Springer Japan.
Sojobi A.O.,Landmark University
Environmental monitoring and assessment | Year: 2016
Evaluation of water quality of nine boreholes and three open hand-dug wells in a rural community in North Central Nigeria revealed relative abundance of cations Na > k > Ca > Mg > Zn > Pb and anions Cl(-) > PO4(2-) > SO4(2-) > NO3(-) in the boreholes and cations Ca > Na > K > Mg > Pb and anions NO3(-) > PO4(2-) > SO4(2-) > Cl(-) in the wells. The major contaminants exceeding SON and WHO permissible limits were NO3(-) , Mg, TH, pH and Mg, Pb, TH, pH and DO in the wells and boreholes, respectively. They are attributable to anthropogenic sources such as domestic waste water and poor waste disposal and natural sources such as mineral dissolution from clayey aquifer which made the acidic groundwater unsuitable for consumption unless they are appropriately treated. Correlation studies revealed existence of three major mineral groups in the aquifer Ca-Fe group, Na-Mg group, Zn-K group, as well as a minor group Pb-group, and they determine the chemical composition of the groundwater and the ionic exchange between the groundwater and mineral-bearing clayey aquifer. In order to curb microbial contamination by Enterobacter aerogenes and Escherichia coli, it is recommended that proper latrines and drainages be provided while domesticated animals should be restricted from boreholes and well. Further, treatment with water guard and pur purifier is recommended.
Babalola O.O.,Landmark University
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2016
There is paucity of information on quality and cheap feedstuffs for snail production in the Tropics. The performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass analysis and organoleptic qualities of snailets of Archachatina marginata fed diets containing graded levels of dried lettuce (DL) were assessed in a 20 week trial. 180 snailets with average weight of 9.18 ± 2.67 g were allotted to 4 diets of 45 snailets per treatment and each treatment replicated thrice with 15 snails per replicate. Snailets were randomly distributed into 4 dietary treatments consisting of 0% DL(T1), 25%DL(T2), 50%DL(T3) and 100%DL(T4) with DL replacing maize in a completely randomized design. Water and feed were presented ad libitum while feed intake and weight gain were measured on daily and weekly basis respectively. Shell length and width were measured with vernier caliper while shell thickness was measured with a micrometer screw gauge on weekly basis. The body weight gain, feed per gain and nutrient digestibility of snailets on T1, T2 and T3 were similar, higher and significantly different (P < 0.05) from those of snailets on T4. The dressing percentages in all the treatments were similar. The organoleptic assessment revealed that the dietary treatments had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the color, taste, flavor, texture and overall acceptability of the snail meat. Snailets on diet T3 were the best in terms of economy of production by having a feed cost savings of 9.16% when compared with the control diet with no dried lettuce. In conclusion, it can be stated that diet T3 containing 50% DL replacement for maize was the best in terms of performance, nutrient digestibility and economy of production amongst the tested diets. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Betiku E.,Obafemi Awolowo University |
Adepoju T.F.,Landmark University
International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering | Year: 2013
Statistical approach was employed to optimize biodiesel production from sesame oil in this work. Precisely, response surface methodology was applied, and the effects of four variables, viz. reaction temperature, catalyst amount, reaction time, and methanol/oil molar ratio, and their reciprocal interactions were determined. Central composite rotatable design was used to generate a total of 30 individual experiments, which were designed to study the effects of these variables during alkali-catalyzed methanolysis of sesame oil. A statistical model predicted the highest conversion yield of sesame biodiesel to be 99.71% at the following optimized variable conditions: reaction temperature of 63°C, catalyst amount of 1.04 wt.%, and methanol/oil molar ratio of 6.24, with a reaction time of 51.09 min. Using these variables under experimental condition in four independent replicates, an actual biodiesel yield of 98.36% was accomplished. The fuel properties of biodiesel produced were found to be within the ASTM D6751 and DIN EN 14214 biodiesel specifications. © 2013 Betiku and Adepoju.
Adeyemi O.S.,Landmark University |
Sulaiman F.A.,University Of Ilorin
Journal of Biomedical Research | Year: 2015
Diminazene aceturate is a trypanocide with unwanted toxicity and limited efficacy. It was reasoned that conjugating diminazene aceturate to functionalized nanoparticle would lower untoward toxicity while improving selectivity and therapeutic efficacy. Silver and gold nanoparticles were evaluated for their capacities to serve as carriers for diminazene aceturate. The silver and gold nanoparticles were synthesized, functionalized and coupled to diminazene aceturate following established protocols. The nanoparticle conjugates were characterized. The free diminazene aceturate and drug conjugated nanoparticles were subsequently evaluated for cytotoxicity in vitro. The characterizations by transmission electron microscopy or UV/Vis spectroscopy revealed that conjugation of diminazene aceturate to silver or gold nanoparticles was successful. Evaluation for cytotoxic actions in vitro demonstrated no significance difference between free diminazene aceturate and the conjugates. Our data suggest that surface modified metal nanoparticles could be optimized for drug delivery systems. © 2015 by the Journal of Biomedical Research.
Adeniyi J.O.,University Of Ilorin |
Ikubanni S.O.,Landmark University
Advances in Space Research | Year: 2013
By introducing the two-segmented linear regression model instead of the well known quadratic fit, we were able to describe the solar activity dependence of the F2 critical frequency. Saturation features were observed and the corresponding F10.7 values at which this phenomenon occurs were obtained for different hours. The seasonal average values were found to be around 154 sfu, 138 sfu, 177 sfu and 150 sfu for March equinox, June solstice, September equinox and December solstice respectively. These affirmed that saturation phenomenon is more pronounced at the equinoxes than solstices. On the average, the threshold value of F10.7 was obtained to be 154.5 sfu for this station in the African sector of the equatorial region. © 2012 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.