Croft B.,Dalhousie University |
Lohmann U.,ETH Zurich |
Martin R.V.,Dalhousie University |
Martin R.V.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics |
And 7 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2010
A diagnostic cloud nucleation scavenging scheme, which determines stratiform cloud scavenging ratios for both aerosol mass and number distributions, based on cloud droplet, and ice crystal number concentrations, is introduced into the ECHAM5-HAM global climate model. This scheme is coupled with a size-dependent in-cloud impaction scavenging parameterization for both cloud droplet-aerosol, and ice crystal-aerosol collisions. The aerosol mass scavenged in stratiform clouds is found to be primarily (>90%) scavenged by cloud nucleation processes for all aerosol species, except for dust (50%). The aerosol number scavenged is primarily (>90%) attributed to impaction. 99% of this impaction scavenging occurs in clouds with temperatures less than 273 K. Sensitivity studies are presented, which compare aerosol concentrations, burdens, and deposition for a variety of in-cloud scavenging approaches: prescribed fractions, a more computationally expensive prognostic aerosol cloud processing treatment, and the new diagnostic scheme, also with modified assumptions about in-cloud impaction and nucleation scavenging. Our results show that while uncertainties in the representation of in-cloud scavenging processes can lead to differences in the range of 20-30% for the predicted annual, global mean aerosol mass burdens, and near to 50% for accumulation mode aerosol number burden, the differences in predicted aerosol mass concentrations can be up to one order of magnitude, particularly for regions of the middle troposphere with temperatures below 273 K where mixed and ice phase clouds exist. Different parameterizations for impaction scavenging changed the predicted global, annual mean number removal attributed to ice clouds by seven-fold, and the global, annual dust mass removal attributed to impaction by two orders of magnitude. Closer agreement with observations of black carbon profiles from aircraft (increases near to one order of magnitude for mixed phase clouds), mid-troposphere 210Pb vertical profiles, and the geographic distribution of aerosol optical depth is found for the new diagnostic scavenging scheme compared to the prescribed scavenging fraction scheme of the standard ECHAM5-HAM. The diagnostic and prognostic schemes represent the variability of scavenged fractions particularly for submicron size aerosols, and for mixed and ice phase clouds, and are recommended in preference to the prescribed scavenging fractions method.
Sturm S.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg |
Wulf G.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg |
Jung D.,Landesamt fur Umwelt |
Kenkmann T.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg
Geology | Year: 2013
The ejecta blankets of impact craters formed on a planetary body that is free of significant quantities of volatiles show substantial differences from those formed on a volatile-rich planetary body. Craters in volatile-rich environments often have layered ejecta blankets with lobe-like ramparts and long runout flows, as seen for Martian impact craters. Under volatile-free conditions, present on the Moon and Mercury, radial textures and patterns, and a gradational decrease in ejecta thickness with distance, can be observed. The Ries crater in Germany is one of the rare impacts on Earth with a preserved ejecta blanket. This crater was previously regarded as an analogue for impact formation on the Moon. Here we demonstrate for the first time that the recent Ries ejecta blanket contains a massive and continuous rampart structure at 1.45-2.12 crater radii from the crater center. Ejecta distribution and thickness, as well as the ejecta fabric, indicate the presence of fluids during the emplacement process. Although Mars differs in atmospheric pressure and water distribution from Earth, the Ries crater shows striking similarities to Martian craters; in particular, those with double-layered ejecta. Consequently, terrestrial impact craters can be better used as analogues for understanding impact formation on Mars than for planetary bodies with volatile-free conditions as seen on the Moon and Mercury. © 2013 Geological Society of America.
Berner Z.A.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology |
Bleeck-Schmidt S.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology |
Stuben D.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology |
Neumann T.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology |
And 2 more authors.
Applied Geochemistry | Year: 2012
Based on the correlation between discharge and carbonate content of the suspended load of the River Rhine, Germany, a systematic geochemical, mineralogical and granulometric study was carried out to verify whether this geochemical signal is transferred to floodplain deposits and in what way these sediments and their chemostratigraphic characterization can be used as a tool for the reconstruction of the river flood history. The analysis of the time resolved changes in the composition of particulate matter during a flood event revealed that the increase of carbonate content (represented by CaO, Sr) with discharge was coupled to a simultaneous decrease in the relative amount of siliciclastics (K2O, Rb). The association of these two groups of diametrical parameters with specific grain size fractions (carbonates with 40-200μm; siliciclastics with >200μm) were found to be slightly shifted relative to each other and showed different gradients during the surging and fading flood wave. This, together with the covariance of elements pertaining to minerals with different density (e.g., carbonate and heavy minerals) suggests a chemical response to the changes in discharge, which is controlled primarily by hydraulic equivalence rather than grain size. There is also a time lag between the amount of suspended load and discharge, with a maximum in suspended load shortly after the peak discharge, when the flood has already started to abate. The flood plain sediments have similar composition to the suspended load, suggesting the direct transfer of the geochemical flood signal to the floodplain sediments.Three lithological units could be distinguished in a 240. cm long sediment core collected from the floodplain. Grain-size and geochemical composition indicate that only the top of the section (20-70. cm) represents sediments deposited in an abandoned channel of the river and may have preserved the geochemical flood signals as identified during actual flood events. The comparison of the chemostratigraphy of this part of the section (estimated with optical stimulated luminescence to be deposited between ca. 1650 and 1920), with a record of historically documented inundations, however, yielded only poor agreement. The possible reasons for this inconsistency are discussed and suggestions are made for continuing investigations. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Smallegange I.M.,Max Planck Institute for Ornithology (Radolfzell) |
Smallegange I.M.,Imperial College London |
Fiedler W.,Max Planck Institute for Ornithology (Radolfzell) |
Koppen U.,Landesamt fur Umwelt |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Ecology | Year: 2010
1. In response to warmer spring conditions in Central Europe many migratory bird species have shifted their timing of breeding. Environmental change has also led to warmer winters, shortening the distance between the breeding grounds of migratory birds and their overwintering areas. 2. Here, we show that in response to warmer winters, blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), but not great tits (Parus major), breeding in Germany decreased their migration distance between 1964 and 1996. Understanding this difference provides insight into possible constraints and selection pressures involved in how species respond to environmental change. Here, we focus on their breeding ecology. 3. In a nest box population in southern Germany, both species laid their first clutch earlier with increasing spring temperature, but over the study period (1974-1999) blue tits showed a significant and stronger advancement in laying date than great tits. For both species, selection for earlier breeding did not vary with environmental change, indicating that early laying pairs did not do better than later laying pairs as spring temperature increased. 4. Blue tits in the nest box population were single-brooded and existing hypotheses state that single-brooded species likely advance their laying date to match timing of reproduction with the advancing food peak in spring. We hypothesize that this might be one reason why blue tits adjusted their migration strategy as closer proximity to the breeding grounds in winter allows better prediction of the onset of spring. Ten per cent of great tits successfully produced second broods and their first clutch laying date is a compromise between first and second clutch laying date, which might be why great tits had not advanced their laying date nor altered their migration strategy. ©2009 The Authors. Journal compilation ©2009 British Ecological Society.
Schneeweiss N.,Landesamt fur Umwelt
Zeitschrift fur Feldherpetologie | Year: 2014
In the context of a field study emerald lizards (Lacerta viridis) were caught in Southeast Brandenburg. Ticks (Ixodes ricinus) of different developmental stage were discovered on three lizards. In addition ectoparasitic mites (Ophionyssus saurarum) were found on 1.1 of the lizards. The present case is possibly the first record of this mite spedes in Germany. The mites (protonymphs) were attached under the scales of the throat and in the skin fold along the tympanum. The particular importance of ectoparasitic mites as vectors of pathogens is pointed out. © Laurenti-Verlag, Bielefeld.
Rinterknecht V.,University of St. Andrews |
Borner A.,Landesamt fur Umwelt |
Bourles D.,Aix - Marseille University |
Braucher R.,Aix - Marseille University
Quaternary Geochronology | Year: 2014
Northeastern Germany was repeatedly covered by the Scandinavian Ice Sheet during the last glaciation and a succession of distinct ice marginal belts is present in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. We used surface exposure dating to develop a time frame for the retreat of the ice margin. Two samples from the Saalian ice marginal belt give Weichselian ages, a problem that has also been encountered further south when attempting to date the same ice marginal belt (the Hoher Fläming) in Brandenburg. One sample from the Frankfurt moraine is too young to be associated with this glacial feature. Another single sample from the Velgast extent gives also an exposure age that is too young to be associated with this glacial feature. These two examples highlight the necessity to sample multiple boulders on the same feature to obtain a reliable exposure age. Fourteen samples were collected on the Pomeranian moraine and 12 were used to calculate an average deposition time of 15.6±0.610Bekyr. Two samples were removed from the age distribution based on statistical grounds. This result is in good agreement with results obtained in Brandenburg where the Pomeranian moraine was dated at 16.4±0.710Bekyr. Five samples from the Mecklenburgian moraine give an average age of 13.7±0.610Bekyr in good chronological order with the Pomeranian moraine age. One sample (MVP-21) from the Mecklenburgian moraine was corrected for burial effect based on historical documents demonstrating that if known, the recent past history of exposure of a surface can be appropriately used to calculate an exposure age. Together, this new data set highlights: 1. the difficulty to date surfaces older than the Weichselian glaciation when using only one cosmogenic radionuclide, 2. the consistency of the results obtained for the Pomeranian moraine across northeastern Germany using cosmogenic Be-10. © 2013.
Engelen J.,Uppenkamp und Partner GmbH |
Piorr D.,Landesamt fur Umwelt
Larmbekampfung | Year: 2015
The sound propagation conditions of high wind turbines were metrologically investigated by measurement in ten nights as part of a research project of the federal state North-Rhine-Westphalia. Within a certain distance, the results show that measured and calculated values match. At a greater distance to the wind turbines, the currently usually used alternative method of DIN ISO 9613-2 systematically underestimates the occurring immissions. It is pointed out, how the method for predicting noise levels of wind turbines can be improved.
Itonaga N.,University of Potsdam |
Koppen U.,Landesamt fur Umwelt |
Plath M.,Goethe University Frankfurt |
Wallschlager D.,University of Potsdam
Ibis | Year: 2011
Following a steep decline, White Stork Ciconia ciconia populations in Germany are currently increasing, allowing us to examine potential density-dependent effects on breeding dispersal. Our data suggest that the proportion of breeding dispersers has increased over time, indicating a density-dependent component in nest-site fidelity that may be linked to increased competition. © 2011 The Authors. Ibis © 2011 British Ornithologists' Union.
Malformations and mutilations in a population of fire-bellied toad (Bombina bombina) in Brandenburg [Fehlbildungen und Verstümmelungen von Rotbauchunken (Bombina bombina) in einer Population nordöstlich von Berlin (Brandenburg)]
Schneeweiss N.,Landesamt fur Umwelt |
Beckmann H.,Landesamt fur Umwelt
Zeitschrift fur Feldherpetologie | Year: 2016
In an area north east of Berlin with intensive agricultural use, field studies have been carried out to examine the population biology of the fire-bellied toad between 1993 and 1999. Data on the manifestation and frequency of malformations and mutilations in this population were collected supplementary. A total of 5,476 individuals were assessed during the course of the investigation. Malformations resp. mutilations were discovered in a number of 93 individuals (1.7%). The most common forms were disfigurements of extremities, such as mutilations (n = 78) and multiple formation of phalanges (n = 2). One fire-bellied toad was found with an additional arm, another individual had an additional foot on the left leg. Some were missing an eye (n = 4). Tumors (n = 6) or distortions of the spinal column (n = 2) were also observed. The possible causes of the malformations and mutilations are discussed. © Laurenti-Verlag, Bielefeld.
Bellebaum J.,Wiesenstr. 9 |
Korner-Nievergelt F.,Oikostat GmbH |
Durr T.,Landesamt fur Umwelt |
Mammen U.,OKOTOP Buro fur angewandte Landschaftsokologie
Journal for Nature Conservation | Year: 2013
Mortality from collisions with increasing numbers of wind turbines is a potential hazard to raptor populations, but the actual effects on a population scale have rarely been studied based on field data. We estimated annual collision numbers for Red Kites Milvus milvus in the German federal state of Brandenburg (29,483km2). A hierarchical model considering carcass persistence rate, searcher efficiency and the probability that a killed animal falls into a searched area was applied to results of carcass searches at 617 turbines. Collision risk varied significantly with season. The model estimated 308 (95% CrI 159-488) Red Kite fatalities at 3044 turbines operating during 2012, representing 3.1% of the estimated post-breeding population of 9972 individuals. Using the potential biological removal (PBR) method, mortality thresholds of 4.0% were obtained for migratory Red Kite populations. This level of mortality may be reached when turbine numbers increase within a few years. Since wind turbine collisions may affect Red Kites throughout the global range, a more detailed assessment of the actual impacts on populations is needed, especially because the PBR does not account for the predominance of adult birds among the collision victims. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.