Recklinghausen, Germany
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Vanhoof C.,Flemish Institute for Technological Research | Holschbach-Bussian K.A.,AURINKO QM | Bussian B.M.,Federal Environment Agency UBA | Cleven R.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment | Furtmann K.,Landesamt fur Natur
X-Ray Spectrometry | Year: 2013

In consequence of several European Union Directives, there is an increasing need for rapid and easy-to-handle screening tools to identify hazardous substances or to verify the absence of those substances. A field trial was executed to evaluate the capability of portable/handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) systems for screening waste loads on hazardous substances as incoming inspection at waste handling plants to characterise the waste material or to classify it by its key variables (critical parameters). For the field trial, six different waste materials were prepared: construction waste, shredder material, contaminated soil, waste wood, Pb granulate and slag from a municipal incineration waste. In total, eight different XRF instruments were evaluated. The results indicate that for screening analysis, the pretreatment of the sample is of minor relevance. Additionally, the results prove that the degree of homogeneity/heterogeneity of the material strongly influences the dispersion of the results of repeated measurements. The obtained results proved that for specific samples (e.g. organic matrices, elevated contaminant concentrations and high water content), an appropriate adjustment of the matrix effects and spectral overlap corrections are required to improve the quality of the XRF results. In the overall assessment, this analytical method can be recommended as a screening method for the analysis of waste, as more than 80% of the obtained results were situated within a predefined range of accuracy. Handheld XRF analysers are the detection method of choice for the initial analysis of elements in waste, as this method is fast, reliable, handy and cost-effective and allows easy checking of sample heterogeneity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Handwerker J.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Straub W.,Landesamt fur Natur
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology | Year: 2011

Measured raindrop size distributions are often approximated by analytical functions. The parameters determining such functions are usually derived from measured data. This procedure can suffer from various uncertainties. The most important of which are (i) the limited detection range of measuring devices such as, for example, disdrometers, and (ii) poor statistics resulting from the rare appearance of relatively large drops. One way to derive the parameters is the moments method that has a degree of freedom in the choice of the moments. The aim of this study is to find an optimal choice of moments. To this end, numerical experiments are performed by calculating random samples from drop populations with gamma-shaped size distributions. These samples are evaluated as they were recorded by an ideal disdrometer whose single limitation is the cutoff with respect to very small and very large raindrops. From that data the parameters mentioned above are determined by the moments method. The truncation of the measurement is explicitly taken into account during the retrieval. Further, all possible combinations of three different moments used to derive the gamma parameters are impartially compared. It turns out that parameters derived on the basis of low-order moments are less affected by biases and noise than parameters derived by larger-order moments, that is, the sampling problem is more severe than the truncation problem, especially because the latter can be overcome much more efficiently within the retrieval algorithm. It is shown that by using very low-order moments and estimating the unmeasured fraction of the moments, optimal results from real measurements can be obtained. © 2011 American Meteorological Society.


Haenen O.L.M.,Central Veterinary Institute CVI of Wageningen UR | Lehmann J.,Landesamt fur Natur | Engelsma M.Y.,Central Veterinary Institute CVI of Wageningen UR | Sturenberg F.-J.,Landesamt fur Natur | And 3 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2010

The worldwide decline of the eel population is thought to be caused by several factors, among which eel diseases. To investigate diseases of European silver eels Anguilla anguilla in the Netherlands, in Nov-Dec 2004 12 silver eels, and in Aug-Dec 2005 80 eels were caught in downstream parts (rivers) of the River Rhine and in Lake IJsselmeer. The eels were measured and weighed, necrotized, and individually checked for presence of external and internal parasites, bacterial infections and viruses, and blood smears were made for haematology. This is the first multidisciplinary study of the health of Dutch silver eels. In the small (2 × 6 eels) pilot study of 2004 in the River Rhine and Lake IJsselmeer respectively, most eels showed aspecific fin haemorrhages, some had ectoparasites, nearly none had parasites in the intestine, half of the groups had Anguillicola crassus in their swimbladder, only few had Trypanosoma's in their blood, and no primary virus or bacterial infections were found, although one eel from Lake IJsselmeer was positive for anguillid herpesvirus 1 (AngHV-1, former Herpesvirus anguillae, HVA) in the PCR test only. The blood of all 6 and 2/6 of the eels respectively was considered abnormal, and the eels had a proper condition.In 2005, in 50 eels from the River Rhine and 30 from Lake IJsselmeer respectively, again aspecific fin haemorrhages were often seen, some of the eels had ectoparasites and parasites in the intestine, most eels had A. crassus in their swimbladder, 32% and 53% had Trypanosoma's in their blood, from 44% and 13% of the eels AngHV-1 was isolated, and 44% and 27% were tested positive by PCR, with a peak in August, 10% of both groups of eels had an internal bacterial infection, mostly due to Aeromonas spp. The blood of about half of the eels was considered abnormal, but the eels had a proper condition.It was concluded, that the silver eels of this study had a proper Fulton condition factor (values 2.00-2.26), with aspecific fin haemorrhages, often were Trypanosoma-, A. crassus- and AngHV-1-infected, dependent on the season, and often showed an abnormal haematology. A. crassus causes injuries and is a chronic stress factor, more than the other parasites, which were mostly found less prevalent. In fact, lymphocytosis was directly related to A. crassus infection. Stress and injuries by A. crassus might induce disease through the presence of virus (AngHV-1), relevant in the health status of the silver eels during their spawning migration if ambient water temperatures would enhance a clinical infection of AngHV-1 disease. Moreover this virus might potentially decrease the survival of the silver eels by itself, because spawning migration to the Sargasso Sea takes wild eels to temperate/tropical areas in which the clinical infection by AngHV-1 is surely enhanced. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Martin E.,Bundesanstalt fur Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin | Gessner A.,Landesamt fur Natur | Gartner A.,Landesamt fur Natur | Jackel U.,Bundesanstalt fur Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft | Year: 2012

Stack emissions from a broiler house were sampled by isokinetic impingement over 2.5 fattening periods. For quantitative and qualitative investigations cultivation independent methods were used to examine the bacterial community in these emissions. The total cell count was determined after DAPI staining and revealed at the beginning of a fattening period a cell emission of 1·108 cells/s and at the end of a fattening period a cell emission of 5·1010 cells/s. A total emission of about 10 16 cells was determined after extrapolation over an entire fatten- ing period. The 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed a changing in the emitted bacterial community. In the course of the fattening period an increase of sequences of fecal bacteria was observed. In contrast a decrease of the dominant genus Staphylococcus at the beginning of the fattening period was observed. The molecular analyses showed that 16S rRNA gene sequences were detected which could not be assigned to any genus and were classified as "uncultured bacteria". Furthermore we recognized bacteria which were not expected in the air of poultry houses. For example the percentage of cells of the genus Jeotgalicoccus (Jeot-Cluster-I) of the total cell count increased from 0.4 at the beginning of the fattening period to 6.7% at the end. We could show that in the emissions 16S rRNA gene sequences are present which were next related to bacteria of the risk group 2 (Aerococcus viridans, Enterococcus hirae, E. faecium, Escherichia albertii and Staphylococcus saprophytics). This study shows that cultivation independent analysis could be used to quantify and identify bacteria in emission samples.


Gartner A.,Landesamt fur Natur | Gessner A.,Landesamt fur Natur | Knust S.,Landesamt fur Natur
Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft | Year: 2014

The North Rhine-Westphalia Agency for Nature, Environment and Consumer Protection (LANUV NRW) has investigated the microorganism emissions of artificially ventilated pig houses. Up to now 67 single measurements were performed at 6 different stables, using the emission impinger described in the German guideline VDI 4257 part 2. At three pig houses samples were taken in the exhaust air at different times of the fattening period. Concentrations, emission rates and specific emission rates were determined for mesophilic bacteria, staphylococci, enterococci and the total cell count. Enterobaderiaceae and streptococci could not be quantified on the basis of cultivation, due to low concentrations. The mean specific emissions were 1 • 105 CFU/(LU-s)1) for bacteria, 1 • 104 CFU/(LU • s) for staphylococci, 3 • 103 CFU/(LU • s) for enterococci and 6 • 106 cells/(LU • s) for the total cell count. Further investigations are planned in order to confirm the results obtained in this study.


Bruckmann P.,Landesamt fur Natur | Hiester E.,Landesamt fur Natur | Klees M.,Landesamt fur Natur | Radermacher L.,Landesamt fur Natur
Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft | Year: 2011

Measurements of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in bioindicators and vegetables gave hints to potential PCB-sources in the harbour region of Dortmund which had an impact on the neighbourhood by degasing and resuspension of polluted dust. In order to identify the polluters, PCB depositions in a dense grid and PCB concentrations in ambient air close to the harbour were measured. In addition, samples from the premises of seven recycling facilities in the harbour region were analyzed. In particular samples from the ENVIO company (recycling of used transformers) showed unusually high PCB levels (contents in the range of g/m2 for wiped surfaces and up to 48 g/kg for sweeped dust). PCB levels in sweeped dust from several recycling and scrap-metal facilities amounted up to the upper mg/kg range. Therefore, it could be established that ENVIO was the main source of the PCB input into the environment. After the closure of this factory in May 2010, a net decrease of PCB concentrations and depositions was observed. However, resuspended dust from several recycling facilities had an additional impact on the PCB depositions in the immediate surroundings. The results show how a coordinated approach using several monitoring systems was successfully used in a complex situation to identify the polluters.


The European Directives on air quality have considerable impact on society and economy, inter alia by setting up low emission zones to meet the strict limit values for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide. The paper highlights the scientific basis of the directives and their effect related limit values and describes the political process from the risk evaluation by scientific organisations such as the World Health Organization up to the risk management by the European Commission, the Council and the European Parliament. Differences between the German law to protect ambient air quality, which emphasizes the protection of neighbouring individuals, and the European directives focussing on cost effective measures to protect the general public are outlined. In the framework of the thematic strategy for clean air targeting for 2020 (CAFE), the european air quality directives were revised in 2008. Limit values for the particle fraction PM2.5 were established as important new element. The scientific basis of this revision is outlined and the political process giving rise to the directive is described. The increasing importance of the European Parliament in setting european law becomes apparent. © ecomed Medizin, Verlagsgruppe Hüthig Jehle Rehm GmbH. Landsberg.


EPA's Guideline VDI 3790 Part 3 refers to a calculation method of emission factors for dust emissions from heavy vehicle traffic on paved industrial roads. The AVDI working group was established to check this methodology, adapted it, and developed the new Guideline VDI 3790 Part 4. The basis for this project was a study on the verification of the American model by field measurements, which was conducted by the Department of Safety Engineering and Environmental Protection at the University of Wuppertal in cooperation with the State Agency for Nature, Environment and Consumer Protection of North Rhine-Westphalia. For this purpose, a test method was developed which simplifies the measurement of the dust emissions. This method and the results of the measurements are presented.


Gladtke D.,Landesamt fur Natur | Olschewski A.,Landesamt fur Natur | Pfeffer U.,Landesamt fur Natur
Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft | Year: 2012

The article describes a sensitive method for the determination of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in ambient air. Sampling is carried out using impingers filled with a slightly alkaline phosphate/aluminium sulphate buffer. Diphenylcarbazide (DPC) is added to the solution in order to form a complex with Cr(VI) which is extracted. Analysis is performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Tests made sure that the phosphate/aluminium sulphate buffer suppresses redox reactions of chromium during sampling. It could also be proved that the formation and extraction of the diphylcarbazide complex leads to an effective separation of Cr(VI) from chromium in other oxidation states. The method was applied in the vicinity of a high quality steel mill. The monitoring data indicated that the emissions of the steel mills caused enhanced concentrations of Cr(VI). The percentage of Cr(VI) related to total chromium was on average 3,2% during the measurement campaign.


During the heating period from November 2011 until April 2012 measurements of PM10, find levoglucosan as tracer for wood burning were performed at 21 stations of the air quality monitornig network LUQS in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) The levoglucosan concentrations were similar in different parts of the State. Nevertheless, local and/or regional sources of levoglucosan were clearly recognized. The highest daily averages were in the range of 2 to 2.3 μg/m2 corresponding to up to 3.5% of the PM 10 concentration. In a residential area with frequent wood burning in private homes measurements of PM10 and levoglucosan were performed in order to determine a conversion factor between levoglucosan and related PM10 concentrations. Using this factor, approximately 20 to 50% of the exceedances of the daily limit value for PM10 as laid down in the European Directive 2008/50/EC, can be ascribed to the additional impact of wood burning during the six months from November 2011 until April 2012. Consequently, there is considerable potential to decrease urban PM levels by optimization of wood burning in stoves and fireplaces. e.g. by Installation of filters, or by regulating usage of small combustion units during Inversion periods accompanied by elevated PM levels.

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