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Paulke T.,Landesamt fur Landliche Entwicklung | Pfuhl R.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Maak S.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology
Zuchtungskunde | Year: 2011

The analysis of raw nutrients in M. longissimus of a large sample of the current German pig population demonstrates a stabilisation of protein, fat and water content. Thus, the trend towards an increase of water with decreasing protein content observed for the last decades came to a halt. However, the intramuscular fat content remains on a low level of about 1.0%. Breeds with potential to increase the IMF content (e.g. Duroc) will not widely be used in future due to disadvantages in slaughter performance. Moreover, Duroc-crossbred pigs are not generally characterised by improved IMF content. Drip loss varies strongly between breeds and crosses with advantages of Duroc and Duroc-derived crosses. There is a trend towards a better sensory evaluation of the M. longissimus in these animals. Rare breeds like German Saddleback have the potential to improve the sensory quality of pork. However, their low performance in economically important traits will restrict their use to local niche porduction. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.


Numberg K.,Leibniz Institute For Nutztierbiologie | Numberg G.,Leibniz Institute For Nutztierbiologie | Dannenberger D.,Leibniz Institute For Nutztierbiologie | Hagemann L.,Landesamt fur Landliche Entwicklung | Paulke T.,Landesamt fur Landliche Entwicklung
Fleischwirtschaft | Year: 2011

The supplementation of extruded linseed on growth and meat and fat quality of castrated male pigs has been investigated in this experiment. Pigs were fed with concentrate pellets without supplement (control), added with 2.5% extruded linseed (experimental group 1) or 4% extruded linseed (experimental group 2) during the finishing period. Growth and, meat and fat quality were not affected by extruded linseed feeding. Fat of muscle and back fat in pigs fed linseed deposited dose dependently more n-3 fatty acids. The ratio n-6 to n-3 was decreased in experimental groups. The processing quality of back fat could be reduced.


In 99 farrowing sows the number of teats and teat canals per functional teat were counted through milk flowing during milking. The rearing performance described by litter and single weight at day 21 of lactation, were related to number of canals per teat and the share of one canal teats. Significant relations were not found. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.


The economically most damaging disease to winter rye is brown rust (Puccinia recondita f.sp.secalis Rob.ex Desm.). There are fungicides of different drug groups in order to fight brown rust in agriculture. Usually mixtures of different active ingredients with different modes of action can be used for the treatment of fungal pathogens. In experiments single agents like pyrazole-carboxamides, azoles and strobilurines were compared to drug combination products like azole strobilurin, azole-carboxamide, or azole carboxamide-strobilurin mixture and their fungicide performance was determined. The active ingredients Epoxiconazole, Pyraclostrobin, and Fluxapyroxad were tested. In eight trials from 2012 to 2013 Fluxapyroxad reached the highest levels of efficiency for P. recondita. Pyraclostrobin or the combination of Pyraclostrobin and Epoxiconazole showed higher efficiencies than Epoxiconazole or the combination of Epoxiconazole and Metconazole in all trials. The thousand seed weight and income from the harvest reflect the efficiency against P. recondita. Both azole strobilurin mixtures as well as the azole carboxamide mixtures are suitable for the control of leaf rust in agriculture. In order to minimize the risk of resistance to strobilurin and azole carboxamide mixtures should be used alternately. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Macholdt J.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Barthelmes G.,Landesamt fur Landliche Entwicklung | Ellmer F.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Baumecker M.,Humboldt University of Berlin
Journal fur Kulturpflanzen | Year: 2013

This study of winter wheat varieties grown under environmental conditions in the Brandenburg region focuses on the following question: How do winter wheat varieties differ in terms of yield stability, yield capacity and response to dry weather conditions? To answer this question, we drew on the results from variety trials carried out over a period of several years and at several different locations in the German Federal State of Brandenburg and analysed different varieties of winter wheat according to the following bio-statistical parameters: ecovalence, linear regression and floating checks. We then estimated different factors affecting yield variability and analysed the response of varieties to different weather conditions according to the climatic water balance. The study showed that environmental factors had the greatest influence on yield variability, whilst variety had a significantly smaller effect. Nevertheless, there were considerable differences between varieties with regard to yield capacity, yield stability and response to environmental conditions. The results are equally important for variety testing and evaluation and plant breeding as well as for agri cultural practice. They provide information about the variable, environment-dependent traits of varieties and through the development of an evaluation scheme, can help breeders to select optimum varieties and make recommendations of suitable site-adapted varieties to farmers.


Schonfeld U.,Landesamt fur Landliche Entwicklung
Journal fur Kulturpflanzen | Year: 2015

During the recent years, the Plant Protection Service in Brandenburg (Federal State of Germany) found several species of Coccoidea on fruit trees, ornamental plants, nurseries and imported plants: Aspidiotus destructor, Bambusaspis bambusae, Ceroplastes japonicus, Ceroplastes rubens, Vinsonia stellifera, Icerya purchasi, Aspidiotus nerii, Abgrallaspis cyanophylli, Diaspis boisduvali, Diaspis bromeliae, Hemiberlesia rapax, Chrysomphalus dictyospermi, Aonidiella aurantii, Parlatoria pergandii, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus, Parthenolecanium persicae. Some species were not known before in the region. © 2015, Verlag Eugen Ulmer. All rights reserved.


Before 2006, agents of class II pyrethroids were used to control rape pests including the rape pollen beetle mainly. Thus, the selection of pyrethroids-resistant pollen beetle populations was encouraged. The aim of our study was to identify ways to combat these populations. Therefore, data of 465 real on-farm insecticide applications from nine years since 2006 were analyzed with regard to their effects on the pollen beetle and own experiments were carried out to test the efficacy of approved insecticides and control strategies. The analysis showed that the highest efficiencies were obtained with agents of the group of organophosphates and with the active substances indoxacarb and pymetrozine. Beyond that, the data examined revealed that the efficiency of thiacloprid (an insecticide of the class of neonicotinoids) has remained relatively constant throughout the observation period. In contrast, the increase in pyrethroid-resistant pollen beetle populations reflects the further decrease in efficacy of class II pyrethroids in the period 2011–2014. In summary, it should be noted that currently available insecticides achieve a maximal abatement level of 80–85 [%]. Therefore, an economic damage cannot be prevented on rapeseed locations with a very strong pollen beetle infestation even if multiple use of insecticides happens. To prevent further escalation of the resistance problem, another aspect should be given greater attention in the future. 55 [%] of the insecticide applications in the practice dataset where carried out before the control threshold (BRW) for weakly developed oilseed rape crops was achieved; often in the stage of micro-bud (BBCH 51). In compliance with the currently suggested higher control threshold, only 15 [%] of the insecticide applications would have been necessary. Thus, a reduction of the number of insecticide applications could be achieved by considering the higher thresholds. This would significantly reduce the selection pressure. Therefore, plant protection advice should mediate between exploiting the control thresholds and using the most appropriate insecticide. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Blank S.M.,Senckenberg Institute | Kohler T.,Berlin Technical University of Applied Sciences | Pfannenstill T.,Landesamt fur Landliche Entwicklung | Neuenfeldt N.,Landesamt fur Landliche Entwicklung | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Hymenoptera Research | Year: 2015

Aproceros leucopoda, the zig-zag sawfly, an invasive pest of elms (Ulmus spp.), was found in two separate areas of Germany through July 2014, i.e., a northern area including the states of Berlin, Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-West Pomerania, Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt, and a southern area in Bavaria. A speed of self-dispersal of 45-90 km/yr has been calculated from earlier and present records. Observations of A. leucopoda in Belgium and the Netherlands during 2013, which are 360-610 km distant from records in Germany of that year, are interpreted as resulting from human-mediated jump dispersal. Larvae, feeding traces and cocoons were frequently found on the native elm species U. minor and U. glabra, whereas none could be detected on U. laevis. Other occurrences were often on Resista® elms, causing severe defoliation in a recent planting. New host plant records for A. leucopoda are: U. minor 'Webbiana', U. minor var. suberosa, and the Resista® cultivars U. 'New Horizon', U. 'Regal' and U. 'Rebona'. The future dispersal of A. leucopoda throughout most of Germany is expected, because at least U. glabra and U. minor are widespread in this country.


Tummler C.,Landesamt fur Landliche Entwicklung | Fahlenberg E.,Landesamt fur Landliche Entwicklung
Gesunde Pflanzen | Year: 2012

In Germany, cultivation of lupines traditionally takes place only in few federal states at sites with light/sandy soil conditions. Due to this fact, there only exist a small number of field trials to close gaps in chemical weed control via herbicides. The existing pre-emergence herbicides are not able to control all of the most common weed species sufficiently-they all show efficiency gaps against single weed species. Not any of the pre-emergence herbicides tested could achieve high efficiencies against Polygonum convolvulus. The best efficiency against P. convolvulus can be achieved after a sequence of a pre-emergence spray of 0,8-1,0 l/ha Fenikan and a post-emergence spray of 0,2 l/ha Tacco. Since Fenikan and Tacco are not approved for lupine, after approval the application only in lupine stocks for seed production is possible. By taking into account only the currently legal permitted herbicides, Gardo Gold and the tank mix Boxer + Stomp Aqua show the best broad effects. Benefits resulting from Gardo Gold can be obtained against Chenopodium album, Viola arvensis, Centaurea cyanus, while the tank mixes Boxer + Stomp Aqua show advantages against Galium aparine. From the pre-emergence herbicides tested, Successor T could be applied as an addition to improve the broad effect. In tank mixes with Gardo Gold, the most common weed species can be controlled well. However, with permission also this tank mix can currently only be applied in lupine seed stock production. In the near future weed control will only be possible with the currently existing and approved herbicides, because there are no new herbicides to expect that are compatible with corn, grain and lupine. Under suboptimal application conditions of soil herbicides, weeded lupine stocks can only be harvested after siccation. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


To investigate different control measures against the diseases in winter rye several trials were done in the German federal states. As a result from these trials the brown rust,Puccinia recondita f. sp. secalis, was the disease with the most negative influence on the yield. The brown rust occurrence at different times on the top three leaves depend on the winter and spring weather. It should be verify whether the protective use of fungicide mixtures with the new carboxamides active ingredient benefits the curative use (disease onset) in terms of achieved efficiency againstP. recondita. It can be stated that the action threshold does not need to be changed when using fungicide mixtures with carboxamides. Regarding the duration of the fungicide efficacy againstP. recondita an order in increasingly levels of efficiency could be determinate. The order is, from lowest to highest, azole fungicides, strobilurin-azole compounds, azole carboxamide compounds, and azole-carboxamide strobilurin mixtures. Due to the variability in the values of the individual test sites in the experimental series the tendency could be confirmed, however, no statistical significant differences between the various mixtures could be determined. The new carboxamides enrich the possibilities of targeted anti-resistance strategy againstP. recondita in winter rye. These trials results are introduced into recommendations for agricultural practice. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

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