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From a raised bog peat sample from the Großen Moor near Uchte (Nienburg/Weser-Distrikt), Lower Saxony, the endophytic fungus Penicillium janthinellum Biourge was isolated and cultivated in 100 ml medium. As a secondary metabolite a diketopiperazine could be isolated and the structure determined by HRMS and 1D- and 2D-NMR-spectroscopic analysis.

Lang J.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Bohner U.,Niedersachsisches Landesamt fur Denkmalpflege | Polom U.,Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics | Serangeli J.,University of Tubingen | Winsemann J.,Leibniz University of Hanover
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2015

Schöningen represents one of the key sites for Lower Paleolithic archaeology in central Europe, where a Middle to Late Pleistocene sedimentary succession, locally up to 45m thick, has been preserved in an Elsterian tunnel valley. After deglaciation, the tunnel valley remained underfilled and provided the accommodation space for Holsteinian interglacial deposition and also kept the artifact-bearing strata below base level for subsequent erosion. The Holsteinian (MIS 9) succession consists of laterally and vertically stacked lacustrine delta systems, which were controlled by repeated lake-level changes. In the face of changing climatic and environmental conditions the long-lived interglacial lake provided an attractive site for animals and early humans. Artifacts were deposited on the subaerial delta plain and became embedded during lake-level rise. Although the area was considerably affected by erosion and glacitectonic deformation during the subsequent Saalian glaciation, the artifact-bearing Holsteinian strata were preserved in the deeper part of the tunnel valley.Tunnel valleys should be regarded as potential archives for interglacial deposits, which may contain important Paleolithic sites. Tunnel valleys may provide accommodation space and also have a high preservation potential. Interglacial lakes situated within underfilled tunnel valleys represented attractive sites for animals and early human hunter-gatherers. © 2015.

Serangeli J.,University of Tubingen | Bohner U.,Niedersachsisches Landesamt fur Denkmalpflege | van Kolfschoten T.,Leiden University | Conard N.J.,University of Tubingen | Conard N.J.,Senckenberg Center for Human Evolution and Palaeoecology
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2015

Archaeological finds including spears, other wooden artifacts, lithic artifacts, and bones with impact scars and cut marks document the repeated presence of hominins on the shoreline of an approximately 300,000 year old lake near Schöningen in Northern Germany. Continuing excavations have uncovered in the locality "Schöningen" at least 20 sites dating to the late Lower Paleolithic. Schöningen is therefore not only a singular archaeological site with remarkable finds; it is a vast locality that preserves a multifaceted archaeological landscape with numerous sites.Ongoing excavations have exposed several large surfaces with organic materials dating to MIS 9. In particular, recent excavations have uncovered new sections belonging to the original Spear Horizon from Schöningen 13 II-4 (the Horse Butchery Site).Current research in Schöningen places the exceptional artifacts within a spatial and environmental context, and provides a wealth of new information on the subsistence strategies and settlement dynamics of the inhabitants of these short-term lakeside occupations.Schöningen, with an overall excavated area of 9400 m2, is one of the largest excavated archaeological localities from MIS 9. Here we present a summary of all the sites, as well as the most relevant excavated areas since 2008 (excavations Tübingen/NLD). © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Conard N.J.,University of Tubingen | Conard N.J.,Senckenberg Center for Human Evolution and Palaeoecology | Serangeli J.,University of Tubingen | Bohner U.,Niedersachsisches Landesamt fur Denkmalpflege | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2015

The exceptional preservation at Schöningen together with a mixture of perseverance, hard work, and sheer luck led to the recovery of unique finds in an exceptional context. The 1995 discovery of numerous wooden artifacts, most notably at least 10 carefully made spears together with the skeletons of at least 20 to 25 butchered horses, brought the debate about hunting versus scavenging among late archaic hominins and analogous arguments about the purportedly primitive behavior of Homo heidelbergensis and Neanderthals to an end. Work under H. Thieme's lead from 1992 to 2008 and results from the current team since 2008 demonstrate that late H. heidelbergensis or early Neanderthals used sophisticated artifacts made from floral and faunal materials, in addition to lithic artifacts more typically recovered at Lower Paleolithic sites. The finds from the famous Horse Butchery Site and two dozen other archeological horizons from the edges of the open-cast mine at Schöningen provide many new insights into the technology and behavioral patterns of hominins about 300 ka BP during MIS 9 on the Northern European Plain. An analysis of the finds from Schöningen and their contexts shows that the inhabitants of the site were skilled hunters at the top of the food chain and exhibited a high level of planning depth. These hominins had command of effective means of communication about the here and now, and the past and the future, that allowed them to repeatedly execute well-coordinated and successful group activities that likely culminated in a division of labor and social and economic patterns radically different from those of all non-human primates. The unique preservation and high quality excavations have led to a major paradigm shift or "Schöningen Effect" that changed our views of human evolution during the late Lower Paleolithic. In this respect, we can view the behaviors documented at Schöningen as a plausible baseline for the behavioral sophistication of archaic hominins of the late Middle Pleistocene and subsequent periods. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Winsemann J.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Lang J.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Roskosch J.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Polom U.,Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics | And 4 more authors.
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2015

In glaciated continental basins accommodation space is not only controlled by tectonics and sea-level but also by the position of ice-sheets, which may act as a regional base-level for fluvial systems. Although the Pleistocene terrace record of major river systems in northwestern Europe has been investigated by many authors, relatively little attention has been paid to base-level changes related to glacier advance-retreat cycles and how these regional changes in base-level interacted with river catchment processes. This study provides a synthesis of the stratigraphic architecture of Middle Pleistocene to Holocene fluvial terraces in the upper Weser and middle Leine valley in northern Germany and links it to glaciation, climate and base-level change. The depositional architecture of the fluvial terrace deposits has been reconstructed from outcrops and high-resolution shear wave seismic profiles. The chronology is based on luminescence ages, 230Th/U ages, 14C ages and Middle Palaeolithic archaeological assemblages.The drainage system of the study area developed during the Early Miocene. During the Pleistocene up to 170m of fluvial incision took place. A major change in terrace style from strath terraces to cut-and-fill terraces occurred during the early Middle Pleistocene before Marine Isotope Stage MIS 12, which may correlate with climate deterioration and the onset of glaciation in northern central Europe. During this time a stable buffer zone was established within which channels avulsed and cut and filled freely without leaving these vertical confines. Climate was the dominant driver for river incision and aggradation, whereas the terrace style was controlled by base-level changes during ice-sheet growth and decay. A major effect of glacio-isostatic processes was the post-Elsterian re-direction of the River Weser and River Leine.The Middle Pleistocene fluvial terraces are vertically stacked, indicating a high aggradation to degradation ratio, corresponding with a regional base-level rise during glacier advance. At the beginning of the Late Pleistocene the terrace style changed from a vertical to a lateral stacking pattern, which is attributed to a decrease in accommodation space during glacier retreat. The formation of laterally attached terraces persisted into the Holocene.Major incision phases took place during MIS 5e, 5d, 5c, and probably early MIS 4, early MIS 3 and MIS 2 (Lateglacial). During MIS 5e and the Lateglacial the braided river systems changed into meandering rivers, indicated by preserved organic-rich flood-plain and point bar deposits. The Late Pleistocene braided river systems (MIS 5c to MIS 3) are characterized by a high sinuosity, which may be a direct effect of an increased downstream gradient after deglaciation when the channel lengthened and the river adjusted to the increased gradient by increasing sinuosity. These Middle Pleniglacial fluvial deposits are unconformably overlain by Lateglacial to Holocene meandering river deposits, which form laterally attached terraces, recording millennial-scale channel shifts. The lack of Late Pleniglacial deposits might be related to Late Weichselian forebulge formation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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