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Singapore, Singapore

Hwang B.-G.,National University of Singapore | Tan H.F.,Land Transport Authority | Sathish S.,ZEB Technology Pte. Ltd
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management | Year: 2013

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify the implementation status of performance measurement and benchmarking in the Singapore construction industry and to provide some suggestions to increase the scale of implementation in these two areas. Design/methodology/approach - A comprehensive literature review was first carried out, then a questionnaire was developed and 32 contractor firms participated in the survey. Findings - It was found that contractor firms in Singapore do not practice performance measurement on a regular basis and there is no uniformity in calculation of performance metrics, leading to low usage of benchmarking. Research limitations/implications - One of the limitations faced during this study was the low number of companies that responded. Another limitation is that the size of projects analyzed tended to be focused towards a relatively small and medium scale. Practical implications - Development of a standardized performance measurement and benchmarking system in Singapore is required. Also, common definitions are vital to enable uniform data collection and the meaningful comparison of performance. Originality/value - This study will help the Singapore construction industry to remain competitive internationally and to continue to attract foreign investors for its capital projects. © 2012 Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source

Goh K.H.,Land Transport Authority | Mair R.J.,University of Cambridge
Geotechnical Engineering | Year: 2011

One of the biggest issues for underground construction in a densely built-up urban environment is the potentially adverse impact on buildings adjacent to deep excavations. In Singapore, a building damage assessment is usually carried out using a three-staged approach to assess the risk of damage caused by major underground construction projects. However, the tensile strains used for assessing the risk of building damage are often derived using deflection ratios and horizontal strains under 'greenfield' conditions. This ignores the effects of building stiffness and in many cases may be conservative. This paper presents some findings from a study on the response of buildings to deep excavations. Firstly, the paper discusses the settlement response of an actual building - the Singapore Art Museum - adjacent to a deep excavation. By comparing the monitored building settlement with the adjacent ground settlement markers, the influence of building stiffness in modifying the response to excavation-induced settlements is observed. Using the finite element method, a numerical study on the building response to movements induced by deep excavations found a consistent relationship between the building modification factor and a newly defined relative bending stiffness of the building. This relationship can be used as a design guidance to estimate the deflection ratio in a building from the greenfield condition. By comparing the case study results with the design guidance developed from finite element analysis, this paper presents some important characteristics of the influence of building stiffness on building damages for deep excavations. Source

Goh K.H.,Land Transport Authority | Mair R.J.,University of Cambridge
Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground - Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground | Year: 2012

Deep excavations and tunnelling can cause ground movements that affect buildings within their influence zone. The current approach for building damage assessment is based on tensile strains estimated from the deflection ratio and the horizontal strains at the building foundation. For tunnelling-induced deformations, Potts & Addenbrooke (1997) suggested a method to estimate the building response from greenfield conditions using the relative building stiffness. However, there is not much guidance for building response to excavation-induced movements. This paper presents a numerical study on the response of buildings to movements caused by deep excavations in soft clays, and proposes design guidance to estimate the deflection ratio and the horizontal strains of the building from the building stiffness. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group. Source

Chin K.-K.,Land Transport Authority | Menon G.,Nanyang Technological University
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Municipal Engineer | Year: 2015

Since the mid-1990s all land transport master plans for Singapore have focused on public bus and rail transport. However, as the final leg of any public transport journey is generally on foot, the provision of walking and road-crossing facilities has been accelerated to meet the diverse needs of pedestrians – ranging from small children to senior citizens and the disabled. This paper describes the physical measures that have been used to make pedestrian facilities in Singapore barrier-free, safe and secure. These include lighting of all facilities at night, sheltered footpaths, kerb-cut ramps when footpaths meet carriageways, raised zebra crossings, extensions of crossing times for senior citizens using concession fare-cards, special alarms at pedestrian signals for the visually handicapped, and ramps, escalators and lifts in addition to staircases for access to pedestrian bridges and underpasses. Whereas it is possible to make new pedestrian facilities barrier-free, retrofitting older facilities poses problems. It is hoped that the 2013 Land Transport Master Plan will spur a more concerted and accelerated effort towards achieving a truly accessible transport system for all by the year 2020. © ICE Publishing: All rights reserved Source

« 2017 Chrysler Pacifica minivan EPA-rated at 28 mpg highway, 22 mpg combined; stop/start and PHEV still to come | Main | Rice study finds using natural gas for electricity and heating, not transportation, more effective in reducing GHGs » Channel NewsAsia recently reported on the case of a Tesla Model S owner in Singapore who, rather than receiving the Carbon Emissions-based Vehicle Scheme (CEVS) rebate he expected of S$15,000 (US$10,841) was hit with a CEVS surcharge of S$15,000 for having high carbon emissions. Under Singapore’s revised Carbon Emissions-Based Vehicle Scheme (CEVS), all new cars and imported used cars registered from 1 July 2015 with low carbon emissions of less than or equal to 135g CO /km qualify for rebates of between S$5,000 (US$3,614) and S$30,000 (US$21,681), which are offset against the vehicle’s Additional Registration Fee (ARF). Cars with high carbon emissions equal to or more than 186g CO /km incur a registration surcharge of between S$5,000 and S$30,000. The revised CEVS is applicable until 30 June 2017, after which it will be subject to further review. As Channel NewsAsia determined, Singapore’s Land Transport Authority (LTA), the agency responsible for planning, operating, and maintaining Singapore’s land transport infrastructure and systems, tested the Models S using United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) R101 standards. The result was that the electric energy consumption of was 444 Wh/km. (This figure is approaching twice that of the US EPA’s estimate of 235.6 Wh/km (38 kWh/100 miles) for the Model S 90.) Singapore applies a grid emission factor of 0.5 g CO /Wh to all electric vehicles for CEVS analysis to account for CO emissions during the electricity generation process. As a result, the equivalent CO footprint of the Model S was 222g/km—placing it in the CEVS C3 surcharge band (216 to 230 g/km), along with, for example, the Lexus RX270 and the Maserati Ghibli. The LTA spokesperson said that the Tesla was not the first fully electric car where grid emission factor was applied. Others, however, qualified for the rebate. In the US, the fueleconomy.gov website, the official US government online source for fuel economy information, enables users to calculate the upstream GHG emissions from power generation based on location, for use in estimating the full carbon footprint of an EV. (The calculation for “Tailpipe & upstream GHG” is found under the “Energy and Environment” tab for individual vehicles. As an example, the same Model S with a 90 kWh pack would have a US average carbon footprint of 250 g/mile (155 g/km); 150 g/mile (96 g/km) in North County, San Diego; and 270 g/mile (167 g/km) in Henderson, KY, home to some of the most carbon-intense power generation in the US.

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