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Islamabad, Pakistan

Arjumend T.,Jammu University | Abbasi M.K.,Jammu University | Rafique E.,Land Resources Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2015

Humic acid (HA) has been reported a promising natural resource showing persistent effects on plant growth promotion, nutrient uptake and soil nutrient status. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effects of soil and foliar applied HA on the changes in selected soil properties and growth/nutrient accumulation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The experiment comprised of 05 levels of soil applied HA viz., 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg kg-1; 02 levels of soil + foliar applied HA i.e., 0 and 100 mg kg-1 tested on two different soils i.e. loam and silt loam. Results indicated that application of HA increased plant growth in terms of shoot length (18%), root length (29%), shoot dry weight (76%), root dry weight (100%) and chlorophyll content (96%). Response of yield and yield components displayed a significant increase in 1000-grain weight (8–16%), biological yield (18–36%), dry matter yield (15–25%) and grain yield (19–58%). The relative increase in NPK uptake in plants grown under HA was 57, 96 and 62%, respectively over the control. HA improved soil nutrient status by increasing organic matter (9%), total N (30%), available P (166%) and available K (52%), indicating a substantial increase in soil nutrient status. The improvement in soil fertility and wheat productivity in response to humic acid observed in this study is critical in the degraded and eroded soils generally exist in the State of Azad Jammu and Kashmir and other parts of the world. The quality and productivity of these degraded and eroded soils may be upgraded by including HA in our agricultural cropping pattern/system. © 2015, Pakistan Botanical Society. All rights reserved.

Manzoor M.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir | Abbasi M.K.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir | Sultan T.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir | Sultan T.,Land Resources Research Institute
Geomicrobiology Journal | Year: 2016

Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) play a significant role in plant P nutrition by their effect on soil P dynamics and their subsequent ability to make P available to plants via solubilization and mineralization processes. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of separate and combined use of indigenous PSB, poultry manure (PM) and compost on solubilization and mineralization of rock phosphate (RP) and their subsequent effect on growth and P accumulation of maize (Zea mays L.). A group of fifty seven bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere/rhizoplane of maize that had been grown in soils collected from varying altitudes (655–2,576 m) of the mountain region of Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. After screening, the capacity of eleven isolates to solubilize mineral phosphate was quantitatively evaluated using insoluble Ca3(PO4)2 in culture medium as a time course study through spectrometer. The growth hormone producing (IAA) capacity of the isolates was also determined. Furthermore, five potential isolates were tested for their ability to increase P release capacity (mineralization) of insoluble RP in an incubation study. The effect of PSB inoculation on maize was determined in a completely randomized greenhouse experiment where root and shoot biomass and P accumulation in plants were assessed. The P solubilization index of selected isolates varied from 1.94 to 3.69, while the P solubilization efficiency ranged between 94.1% and 269.0%. The isolates MRS18 and MRS27 displayed the highest values. The P solubilization in the liquid medium was maximum at 6 and 9 days of incubation ranging between 9.91 and 44.04 µgmL−1 and the isolates MRS27 and MRS34 exhibited the highest solubilization. Six isolates showed additional capability of producing IAA ranging between 2.66 and 28.41 µgmL−1. Results of the incubation study indicated that P release capacity (P mineralization) of RP-amended soil varied between 6.0 and 11.8 µgPg−1 that had been significantly increased to 30.6–36.3 µgPg−1 (maximum value) when PSB were combined with RP. The combined application of PSB and organic amendments (PM, compost) with RP further increased P mineralization by releasing a maximum of 37.7 µgPg−1 compared with separate application of RP (11.8 µgPg−1) and organic amendments (21.5 and 16.5 µgPg−1). The overall effect of PSB (as a group) with RP over RP alone on maize growth showing a relative increase in shoot length 21%, shoot fresh weight 42%, shoot dry weight 24%, root length 11%, root fresh weight 59%, root dry weight 35% and chlorophyll content 32%. This study clearly indicates that use of PSB, and organic amendments with insoluble RP could be a promising management strategy to enhance P availability in soil pool and improve plant growth in intensive cropping systems. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Najeeb U.,Zhejiang University | Najeeb U.,Crop science Institute | Jilani G.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Ali S.,Zhejiang University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2011

This study appraised cadmium (Cd) toxicity stress in wetland plant Juncus effusus, and explored its potential for Cd phytoextraction through chelators (citric acid and EDTA). Cadmium altered morphological and physiological attributes of J. effusus as reflected by growth retardation. Citric acid in the presence of 100μM Cd significantly countered Cd toxicity by improving plant growth. Elevated Cd concentrations reduced translocation factor that was increased under application of both chelators. Citric acid enhanced Cd accumulation, while EDTA reduced its uptake. Cadmium induced oxidative stress modified the antioxidative enzyme activity. Both levels of citric acid (2.5 and 5.0. mM) and lower EDTA concentration (2.5. mM) helped plants to overcome oxidative stress by enhancing their antioxidative enzyme activities. Cadmium damaged the root cells through cytoplasmic shrinkage and metal deposition. Citric acid restored structure and shape of root cells and eliminated plasmolysis; whereas, EDTA exhibited no positive effect on it. Shoot cells remained unaffected under Cd treatment alone or with citric acid except for chloroplast swelling. Only EDTA promoted starch accumulation in chloroplast reflecting its negative impact on cellular structure. It concludes that Cd and EDTA induce structural and morphological damage in J. effusus; while, citric acid ameliorates Cd toxicity stress. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Khan S.U.,University of Haripur | Khan A.,Land Resources Research Institute | Naveed S.,Islamabad College for Boys G 6 2
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2015

Drought is one of the major abiotic stress responsible for yield reduction of crops worldwide. Kinetin (KIN) and glycine betain (GB) have an essential role in regulating cell division during the early phase of grain setting; assimilate flow and osmotic adjustment under drought stress. Effects of exogenously applied kinetin and glycine betain on some metabolic and yield attributes of two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars viz., Basmati-385 and KS-282 were evaluated under water stress. KIN and GB were applied by spraying the plants at flowering stage before drought stress treatment. Both treatments significantly increased proline concentration in leaves and panicles of both the rice cultivars as compared to their control. They also increased soluble sugar in the leaves and panicles under water stress. Starch concentration in leaves and panicles of both the rice cultivars were increased significantly (p<0.05) by KIN and GB spray. However, the magnitude of increase of the starch in panicles was more pronounced in cv. Basmatti-385 than cv. KS-282. Under the applied water stress both KIN and GB spray significantly increased paddy yield in both the rice cultivars. Both KIN and GB spray significantly increased the number of seeds per panicle in both the rice cultivars. The quantitative increase in paddy yield and seed number was greater in cv. Basmatti-385 as compared to cv. KS-282. Exogenous application of KIN at flowering stage could be used as an effective treatment to mimic the adverse effects of water stress in fine rice cultivars.

Zameer Khan M.,Land Resources Research Institute | Ehsan Akhtar M.,Land Resources Research Institute | Naeem Safdar M.,Grain Quality Testing Labaratory | Masud Mahmood M.,Horticulture Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

Field experiments were conducted for two consecutive seasons at NARC potato research area Islamabad, Pakistan, to study comparative effect of source, levels and methods of K fertilization on yield and quality of potato produce. Nitrogen and phosphorus were applied at 250 and 125 kg ha-1, respectively whereas three K2O levels, 0, 150 and 225 kg ha-1 from two sources of potash (SOP and MOP) were tested. Potassium was also applied as foliar spray at 1% K2O solution at 30, 45 and 60 days after germination (DAG) and soil was also amended by 150 kg K2O ha-1. A significant increase in tuber yield with K application at 150 kg ha-1 as K2O from both the K sources over NP treatment was recorded. Increase in tuber yield with K2O @ 225 kg ha-1 was statistically nonsignificant compared to 150 kg K2O ha-1. A positive interaction between soil applied P and K with N in plant system was observed. Potassium treatments not only increased K concentration but also affected N and P contents in potato tubers. The quality parameters like dry matter, specific gravity, starch contents, vitamin-C and ash contents were also affected with P and K fertilization.

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