Land Resources Research Institute

Islamabad, Pakistan

Land Resources Research Institute

Islamabad, Pakistan
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Ahmed H.,Land Resources Research Institute | Siddique M.T.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Iqbal M.,Space Applications and Research Complex | Hussain F.,Land Resources Research Institute
Soil and Environment | Year: 2017

Soil pH is considered as a core indicator for nutrient bioavailability. Prevailing alkaline pH due to calcareousness in Pakistan is considered as one of the limiting factor for nutrient availability to plants. Exploring the spatial variability of soil variables serves as scientific basis for the generation of soil management strategies. Selection of best interpolation method to predict the soil properties at un-sampled locations is an important issue in the site specific investigations. This article evaluates Inverse distance weighting, global and local polynomial interpolation, radial basis function and kriging to determine the optimal interpolation method for mapping soil pH. Performance of the interpolation methods was analyzed using soil test (pH) data from 180 surface soil samples collected from 30 representative orchards grown in tehsil Murree. For inverse distance weighting, powers of 1, 2 and 3 were used and the number of neighbors for all methods ranged from 15 to 25. The conclusion of our study suggested that increased power of inverse distance weighting resulted in an increase in the prediction accuracy. Local polynomial interpolation method was more suitable as compared to global polynomial interpolation. Radial basis function with regularized and spline tension gave equivalent prediction accuracy. Higher errors (mean and mean absolute errors) were observed in case of ordinary kriging as compared to other interpolation methods. Digital maps generated by the higher powers of inverse distance weighting, local polynomial interpolation, and radial basis function were of higher accuracy. © 2017, Soil Science Society of Pakistan.

Zameer Khan M.,Land Resources Research Institute | Ehsan Akhtar M.,Land Resources Research Institute | Naeem Safdar M.,Grain Quality Testing Labaratory | Masud Mahmood M.,Horticulture Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

Field experiments were conducted for two consecutive seasons at NARC potato research area Islamabad, Pakistan, to study comparative effect of source, levels and methods of K fertilization on yield and quality of potato produce. Nitrogen and phosphorus were applied at 250 and 125 kg ha-1, respectively whereas three K2O levels, 0, 150 and 225 kg ha-1 from two sources of potash (SOP and MOP) were tested. Potassium was also applied as foliar spray at 1% K2O solution at 30, 45 and 60 days after germination (DAG) and soil was also amended by 150 kg K2O ha-1. A significant increase in tuber yield with K application at 150 kg ha-1 as K2O from both the K sources over NP treatment was recorded. Increase in tuber yield with K2O @ 225 kg ha-1 was statistically nonsignificant compared to 150 kg K2O ha-1. A positive interaction between soil applied P and K with N in plant system was observed. Potassium treatments not only increased K concentration but also affected N and P contents in potato tubers. The quality parameters like dry matter, specific gravity, starch contents, vitamin-C and ash contents were also affected with P and K fertilization.

Arjumend T.,Jammu University | Abbasi M.K.,Jammu University | Rafique E.,Land Resources Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2015

Humic acid (HA) has been reported a promising natural resource showing persistent effects on plant growth promotion, nutrient uptake and soil nutrient status. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effects of soil and foliar applied HA on the changes in selected soil properties and growth/nutrient accumulation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The experiment comprised of 05 levels of soil applied HA viz., 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg kg-1; 02 levels of soil + foliar applied HA i.e., 0 and 100 mg kg-1 tested on two different soils i.e. loam and silt loam. Results indicated that application of HA increased plant growth in terms of shoot length (18%), root length (29%), shoot dry weight (76%), root dry weight (100%) and chlorophyll content (96%). Response of yield and yield components displayed a significant increase in 1000-grain weight (8–16%), biological yield (18–36%), dry matter yield (15–25%) and grain yield (19–58%). The relative increase in NPK uptake in plants grown under HA was 57, 96 and 62%, respectively over the control. HA improved soil nutrient status by increasing organic matter (9%), total N (30%), available P (166%) and available K (52%), indicating a substantial increase in soil nutrient status. The improvement in soil fertility and wheat productivity in response to humic acid observed in this study is critical in the degraded and eroded soils generally exist in the State of Azad Jammu and Kashmir and other parts of the world. The quality and productivity of these degraded and eroded soils may be upgraded by including HA in our agricultural cropping pattern/system. © 2015, Pakistan Botanical Society. All rights reserved.

Manzoor M.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir | Abbasi M.K.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir | Sultan T.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir | Sultan T.,Land Resources Research Institute
Geomicrobiology Journal | Year: 2016

Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) play a significant role in plant P nutrition by their effect on soil P dynamics and their subsequent ability to make P available to plants via solubilization and mineralization processes. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of separate and combined use of indigenous PSB, poultry manure (PM) and compost on solubilization and mineralization of rock phosphate (RP) and their subsequent effect on growth and P accumulation of maize (Zea mays L.). A group of fifty seven bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere/rhizoplane of maize that had been grown in soils collected from varying altitudes (655–2,576 m) of the mountain region of Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. After screening, the capacity of eleven isolates to solubilize mineral phosphate was quantitatively evaluated using insoluble Ca3(PO4)2 in culture medium as a time course study through spectrometer. The growth hormone producing (IAA) capacity of the isolates was also determined. Furthermore, five potential isolates were tested for their ability to increase P release capacity (mineralization) of insoluble RP in an incubation study. The effect of PSB inoculation on maize was determined in a completely randomized greenhouse experiment where root and shoot biomass and P accumulation in plants were assessed. The P solubilization index of selected isolates varied from 1.94 to 3.69, while the P solubilization efficiency ranged between 94.1% and 269.0%. The isolates MRS18 and MRS27 displayed the highest values. The P solubilization in the liquid medium was maximum at 6 and 9 days of incubation ranging between 9.91 and 44.04 µgmL−1 and the isolates MRS27 and MRS34 exhibited the highest solubilization. Six isolates showed additional capability of producing IAA ranging between 2.66 and 28.41 µgmL−1. Results of the incubation study indicated that P release capacity (P mineralization) of RP-amended soil varied between 6.0 and 11.8 µgPg−1 that had been significantly increased to 30.6–36.3 µgPg−1 (maximum value) when PSB were combined with RP. The combined application of PSB and organic amendments (PM, compost) with RP further increased P mineralization by releasing a maximum of 37.7 µgPg−1 compared with separate application of RP (11.8 µgPg−1) and organic amendments (21.5 and 16.5 µgPg−1). The overall effect of PSB (as a group) with RP over RP alone on maize growth showing a relative increase in shoot length 21%, shoot fresh weight 42%, shoot dry weight 24%, root length 11%, root fresh weight 59%, root dry weight 35% and chlorophyll content 32%. This study clearly indicates that use of PSB, and organic amendments with insoluble RP could be a promising management strategy to enhance P availability in soil pool and improve plant growth in intensive cropping systems. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Najeeb U.,Zhejiang University | Najeeb U.,Crop science Institute | Jilani G.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Ali S.,Zhejiang University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2011

This study appraised cadmium (Cd) toxicity stress in wetland plant Juncus effusus, and explored its potential for Cd phytoextraction through chelators (citric acid and EDTA). Cadmium altered morphological and physiological attributes of J. effusus as reflected by growth retardation. Citric acid in the presence of 100μM Cd significantly countered Cd toxicity by improving plant growth. Elevated Cd concentrations reduced translocation factor that was increased under application of both chelators. Citric acid enhanced Cd accumulation, while EDTA reduced its uptake. Cadmium induced oxidative stress modified the antioxidative enzyme activity. Both levels of citric acid (2.5 and 5.0. mM) and lower EDTA concentration (2.5. mM) helped plants to overcome oxidative stress by enhancing their antioxidative enzyme activities. Cadmium damaged the root cells through cytoplasmic shrinkage and metal deposition. Citric acid restored structure and shape of root cells and eliminated plasmolysis; whereas, EDTA exhibited no positive effect on it. Shoot cells remained unaffected under Cd treatment alone or with citric acid except for chloroplast swelling. Only EDTA promoted starch accumulation in chloroplast reflecting its negative impact on cellular structure. It concludes that Cd and EDTA induce structural and morphological damage in J. effusus; while, citric acid ameliorates Cd toxicity stress. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Tabassam T.,Land Resources Research Institute | Kanwal S.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Saqlan Naqvi S.M.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Ali A.,Land Resources Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2016

Salinity reduces the uptake of manganese (Mn) and induces its deficiency, which adversely affects photosynthesis-related photosystem-II activity, hence growth is hampered. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of Mn application on the photosystem-II activity on the isolated thylakoid membranes of the rice. A hydroponic study was carried out in the glasshouse of National Agriculture Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan on two rice varieties, Pakhal and KS-282, using three replicates. Three salt concentrations, namely 0, 25, 50 mM NaCl were used. Manganese sulphate was used for foliar and root application with four concentrations (0, 2, 4, 8 μg Mn mL-1). Salinity decreased the concentration of Mn, while the application of Mn, increased the contents of Mn in shoot and root. Increased salt concentration caused a decrease in the chlorophyll contents while Mn application increased chlorophyll contents across all the salinity levels, with maximum increase at 2 μg Mn mL-1. Photosystem-II activity was inhibited by increasing salt concentration, while Mn treatment rescued this inhibitory affect, with maximum photosystem-II activity recovery at 2 μg Mn mL-1 level in both varieties. Quite high concentration of Mn was observed in root application methods as compared to foliar but it failed to recover salinity impact on photosystem-II and photosynthesis. Applying Mn as foliar increased tolerance to salinity at 50 mM NaCl level while root application was found better at 25 mM NaCl concentration in culture solution. © 2016 Friends Science Publishers.

Mahmood I.A.,Land Resources Research Institute | Ali A.,Land Resources Research Institute | Shahzad A.,National Institute for Genomics and Advanced Biotechnology | Sultan T.,Land Resources Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research Series B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2016

A two years field study according to split plot design was conducted to investigate the impact of crop residue (CR) incorporation and P application (0, 40, 80, 120 kg P2O5/ha) on P use efficiency and yield of direct seeded rice (DSR) and wheat grown under saline soil (ECe = 4.59 dS/m; pHs = 8.38; SAR = 6.57 (mmolc/L)1/2; extractable P = 4.07 mg/kg; texture = sandy clay loam), during the years 2011 and 2012. Planting of DSR (with and without crop residue incorporation @ 2 tonnes/ha) were placed in main plots and P application was in sub plots. Data on tillering, plant height, panicle length, 1000 grain weight, paddy and straw yields were collected. On an average of two years, maximum tillers (18), panicle length (33), grain/panicle (121) and paddy yield (3.26 t/ha) were produced with P application @ 80 kg P2O5/ha along with CR incorporation. Similarly in case of wheat grown after DSR, maximum tillers (17), spike length (17), grains/panicle (66) and grain yield (3.56 t/ha) were produced with P application @ 80 kg P2O5/ha along with CR incorporation. Although, the growth and yield contributing parameters with this treatment (80 kg P2O5/ha + CR) performed statistically equal to 120 kg P2O5/ha without CR incorporation during both the years, but on an average of two years, grain yield of DSR and wheat was significantly superior (22 and 24%, respectively) than that of higher P rate (120 kg/ha) without CR. Overall, continuous two years CR incorporation further increased (17%) paddy yields during the follow up year of crop harvest. Higher P use efficiency and concentrations of P, K+ and Ca2+ in both DSR and wheat plant tissues was found where 80 kg P2O5/ha was applied along with CR incorporation or 120 kg P2O5/ha alone while Na+ and Mg2+ concentration decreased with CR incorporation and increasing P rate. An increasing trend in DSR paddy and wheat grain yields was observed with increasing the rate of P application without CR incorporation, however, it was not as much as that of 80 kg P2O5/ha application with CR incorporation and found to be superior than rest of the treatments during both study years. © 2016, Oriental Scientific Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

Khan S.U.,University of Haripur | Khan A.,Land Resources Research Institute | Naveed S.,Islamabad College for Boys G 6 2
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2015

Drought is one of the major abiotic stress responsible for yield reduction of crops worldwide. Kinetin (KIN) and glycine betain (GB) have an essential role in regulating cell division during the early phase of grain setting; assimilate flow and osmotic adjustment under drought stress. Effects of exogenously applied kinetin and glycine betain on some metabolic and yield attributes of two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars viz., Basmati-385 and KS-282 were evaluated under water stress. KIN and GB were applied by spraying the plants at flowering stage before drought stress treatment. Both treatments significantly increased proline concentration in leaves and panicles of both the rice cultivars as compared to their control. They also increased soluble sugar in the leaves and panicles under water stress. Starch concentration in leaves and panicles of both the rice cultivars were increased significantly (p<0.05) by KIN and GB spray. However, the magnitude of increase of the starch in panicles was more pronounced in cv. Basmatti-385 than cv. KS-282. Under the applied water stress both KIN and GB spray significantly increased paddy yield in both the rice cultivars. Both KIN and GB spray significantly increased the number of seeds per panicle in both the rice cultivars. The quantitative increase in paddy yield and seed number was greater in cv. Basmatti-385 as compared to cv. KS-282. Exogenous application of KIN at flowering stage could be used as an effective treatment to mimic the adverse effects of water stress in fine rice cultivars.

Ahmad R.,Land Resources Research Institute | Khalid M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Jones D.L.,University of Wales | Mahmood-Ul-Hassan M.,Land Resources Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

Depleted Uranium (DU) is primarily composed of the isotope uranium-238 (238U). It has been identified as an emerging pollutant with the advancement of nuclear science, especially in the regions where nuclear weapons had been used in the recent past. Effect of DU on maize growth was studied by using 2 soils of contrasting characteristics (cambisol and podzol) in a growth chamber study. Both soils were amended with increasing concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mM) of DU as UO2(NO3)2 and KNO3. Three day old maize seedlings were sown under optimum growth conditions and harvested after 2 weeks. Data regarding plant height, SPAD-meter reading and fresh and dry biomass were recorded and analyzed statistically. Effect of different concentrations of DU and KNO3 were also monitored on post harvest soil microbial activity through infra red gas analyzer (IRGA) respiration and substrate-induced respiration. Results revealed that there was no significant effect of DU on maize growth when compared with KNO3 for cambisol soil at all concentrations. However, dry shoot weight of maize in podzol soil decreased significantly at 10mM of DU compared to KNO3 (0.22 vs. 0.36g). Results of IRGA and substrate induced respiration revealed that there was no significant difference among CO2 evolved at various concentrations of DU and KNO3 for both soils. Overall, cambisol soil produced more maize biomass (2 folds) and higher microbial activity (up to 2.8 folds) compared to podzol soil. The study concluded that effect of DU on maize growth was directed by the soil physico-chemical properties and productivity status of 2 soils.

Khan A.,Land Resources Research Institute | Gurmani A.R.,University of Haripur | Khan M.Z.,Land Resources Research Institute | Hussain F.,Land Resources Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan | Year: 2013

A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of humic acid (HA) applied as soil and foliar at 15, 30 and 45 ppm on the growth, biochemical content, nutrient concentrations and yield of peas. Soil as well as foliar application of HA increased the plant growth and grain yield of peas; however magnitude of increase was higher in soil application than foliar. Highest plant growth and grain yield was achieved with soil application of 15 ppm HA followed by 30 ppm and foliar application of 45 ppm HA respectively. Percentage increase in dry grain yield due to 15 ppm was 37%, with 30 ppm was 29% and foliar application of 45 ppm was 25%. Nutrient concentrations (P, K, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu) were increased with soil and foliar application of HA. The concentrations of nutrients were relatively higher in shelf than grain. Maximum concentration of P, K and Fe was obtained with the soil application of HA at 15 ppm. Humic acid applied at 15, 30 as soil as well as foliar application at 45 ppm significantly increased chlorophyll, carotenoid and total sugar content. Our results indicate that soil application of HA at 15 and 30 ppm, while foliar application at 45 ppm can increase growth, nutrients concentration, chlorophyll content and yield of Peas in calcareous soil conditions.

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