Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace Research Group

Farnham, United Kingdom

Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace Research Group

Farnham, United Kingdom
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Ashwood F.E.,Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace Research Group | Doick K.J.,Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace Research Group | Atkinson G.E.,Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace Research Group | Chenoweth J.,University of Surrey
Waste Management and Research | Year: 2014

The regeneration of brownfield land to greenspace is a governmental policy objective of many European countries. Healthy vegetation establishment and growth is an essential component of successful greenspace establishment, and research has shown that a planting medium of an appropriate standard for supporting vegetation can be created through amendment of soil-forming materials with organic wastes. However, failed regeneration projects suggest that barriers may exist that prevent the use of suitable quality soil materials. The aim of this research was to identify barriers to the use of organic wastes for improving soil materials for brownfield regeneration to community woodland. We conducted interviews with a range of professionals experienced in regeneration to greenspace, and used content analysis on interview transcripts. A diverse set of barriers was revealed, including a low technical awareness among some professional groups of how to improve soil quality, coupled with a low awareness of the published technical guidance. Other barriers include regulatory and project management issues, which influence the timings and economics of raising brownfield soil quality. We highlight areas in which future efforts may be focused to improve the quality of planting media used in land regeneration. Such effort will improve the sustainability of greenspaces created and complement effective management of organic waste streams. © The Author(s) 2013.


Doick K.J.,Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace Research Group | Atkinson G.E.,Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace Research Group | Cordle P.,Forestry Commission England | Giupponi N.,Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace Research Group
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening | Year: 2013

A key policy objective of many European Governments and their forestry departments is socially inclusive use of woodlands as use is a pre-requisite to enjoying many of the benefits afforded by woodland. However, access to woodlands is unequally distributed across British society and research suggests disconnect between the facilities provided and their suitability-for-use, given the wide range of reasons for visiting woodland. This research sought to inform woodland management and complement research into barriers to accessing woodland by investigating whether the design and provision of core access facilities may preclude certain user-groups. The research was carried out on the public forest estate of England; although the results are applicable to any woodland where public access is encouraged. The generic findings are applicable also to other greenspace types. Preferences in design were strongly influenced by the instrumentality (functionality) and aesthetic of an item - whether it was in-keeping with the woodland setting. Facility provision and upkeep are also important to woodland users. The study suggests that small changes in facility provision, including greater emphasis on naturalistic and rustic designs, provision of a range of pathway surface types and reducing the urbanisation of woodland, could increase the appeal of woodland to a wider demographic. Woodlands can fulfil a wide range of social functions. Where this is desirable, the woodland (new or existing) should be appropriately designed to reflect these intended roles and functions. This will require a range of facilities sympathetically provided. © 2012 .


Vaz Monteiro M.,Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace Research Group | Doick K.J.,Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace Research Group | Handley P.,Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace Research Group | Peace A.,Northern Research Station
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening | Year: 2016

Urban greenspaces can provide a significant cooling service, which extends beyond the greenspace boundaries. Consequently, greenspaces are recognised for their ability to locally reduce the urban heat island, a phenomenon that has negative implications for the thermal comfort and health of urban citizens. However, the amount of cooling provided by a greenspace and the distance over which that cooling extends depend on factors such as greenspace size and characteristics. Based on data collected in and around eight London greenspaces, with areas ranging from 0.2 to 12.1 ha, this work models the distance and magnitude of cooling provided by each greenspace and defines the relationships between cooling extent and the size of greenspace or the areas of tree canopy and grass. Such data, illustrating the value of expanding the area of urban greenspaces and explaining how cooling relates to greenspace size/coverage characteristics, will be of use to urban planners and climatologists concerned with finding solutions to the urban heat island. Modelling was statistically valid on calm warm nights (with mean air temperatures ≥10 °C and wind speed ≤3 m s-1). On those nights, cooling distance increased linearly with increasing area of greenspace, tree canopy and grass, but the relationship between those factors and the amount of cooling was non-linear. Cooling distance was most strongly related with tree canopy whereas the amount of cooling was most strongly linked to the grass coverage. Our results suggest that a comprehensive cooling service on calm warm nights within cities with similar climate/characteristics to London may come from greenspaces with 3-5 ha, situated 100-150 m apart. © 2016.


Vaz Monteiro M.,Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace Research Group | Doick K.J.,Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace Research Group | Handley P.,Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace Research Group
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening | Year: 2016

Tree allometry describes the relationship between tree biometric variables, such as tree diameter (at breast height, DBH), height and crown width and helps urban foresters to assess many of the economic and ecological benefits provided by trees of different size. However, there is little knowledge on how the relationships established between those variables change between trees from different urban areas or species, especially within Great Britain (GB). This study aims to evaluate the variation in the allometric relationships of seven tree species growing in eight GB urban areas, and to understand if the use of generic curves representing relationships of trees growing across all locations is adequate. The variation between locations was highly significant; nevertheless, mean relationships of young trees growing in different locations were still accurately represented by a common species curve. Species with a similar stature also showed significant differences in their mean allometric relationships, reducing the level of accuracy when estimating mean relationships with multiple-species curves. Findings also suggest that crown width could be correctly predicted from DBH measurements. This knowledge can be used in citizen science based surveys, where the measurement of crown width is required but often challenging. © 2016


Doick K.J.,Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace Research Group | Peace A.,Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace Research Group | Hutchings T.R.,Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace Research Group
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

The term urban heat island (UHI) describes a phenomenon where cities are on average warmer than the surrounding rural area. Trees and greenspaces are recognised for their strong potential to regulate urban air temperatures and combat the UHI. Empirical data is required in the UK to inform predictions on cooling by urban greenspaces and guide planning to maximise cooling of urban populations. We describe a 5-month study to measure the temperature profile of one of central London's large greenspaces and also in an adjacent street to determine the extent to which the greenspace reduced night-time UHI intensity. Statistical modelling displayed an exponential decay in the extent of cooling with increased distance from the greenspace. The extent of cooling ranged from an estimated 20. m on some nights to 440. m on other nights. The mean temperature reduction over these distances was 1.1. °C in the summer months, with a maximum of 4. °C cooling observed on some nights. Results suggest that calculation of London's UHI using Met Stations close to urban greenspace can underestimate 'urban' heat island intensity due to the cooling effect of the greenspace and values could be in the region of 45% higher. Our results lend support to claims that urban greenspace is an important component of UHI mitigation strategies. Lack of certainty over the variables that govern the extent of the greenspace cooling influence indicates that the multifaceted roles of trees and greenspaces in the UK's urban environment merit further consideration. © 2014.


PubMed | Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace Research Group
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2014

The term urban heat island (UHI) describes a phenomenon where cities are on average warmer than the surrounding rural area. Trees and greenspaces are recognised for their strong potential to regulate urban air temperatures and combat the UHI. Empirical data is required in the UK to inform predictions on cooling by urban greenspaces and guide planning to maximise cooling of urban populations. We describe a 5-month study to measure the temperature profile of one of central Londons large greenspaces and also in an adjacent street to determine the extent to which the greenspace reduced night-time UHI intensity. Statistical modelling displayed an exponential decay in the extent of cooling with increased distance from the greenspace. The extent of cooling ranged from an estimated 20 m on some nights to 440 m on other nights. The mean temperature reduction over these distances was 1.1 C in the summer months, with a maximum of 4 C cooling observed on some nights. Results suggest that calculation of Londons UHI using Met Stations close to urban greenspace can underestimate urban heat island intensity due to the cooling effect of the greenspace and values could be in the region of 45% higher. Our results lend support to claims that urban greenspace is an important component of UHI mitigation strategies. Lack of certainty over the variables that govern the extent of the greenspace cooling influence indicates that the multifaceted roles of trees and greenspaces in the UKs urban environment merit further consideration.

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