Land Reclamation Institute

Síndos, Greece

Land Reclamation Institute

Síndos, Greece
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Tziritis E.,Land Reclamation Institute | Kelepertzis E.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Korres G.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Perivolaris D.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Repani S.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2012

There is an increasing concern regarding elevated levels of Cr(VI) in the environment due to its higher mobility and toxicity compared to the trivalent form. Anomalous hexavalent chromium concentrations (up to 212 μg/L) were determined in irrigated groundwaters from the wider area of Thiva Basin (central Greece), frequently exceeding the permissible limit for human consumption (50 μg/L for total Cr). Based on the spatial distribution of Cr(VI) values, two groups of groundwater samples were distinguished, possibly reflecting different natural and/or anthropogenic factors that govern the levels of contamination. The first group is spatially located northwards of Thiva town and is consisted of concentrations that range from 13 to 212 μg/L (median 58 μg/L), while the second group is located near Mouriki village and Cr(VI) values range from <9 to 14 μg/L. The Cr(VI) chemical anomalies represent an important social problem because the agricultural products of this region are a major vegetable supply for Greece, bringing up the urgent need to evaluate the health effects associated with Cr(VI) exposure by ingesting the potentially contaminated foods. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.


Panagopoulos A.,Land Reclamation Institute | Arampatzis G.,Land Reclamation Institute | Tziritis E.,Land Reclamation Institute | Pisinaras V.,Land Reclamation Institute | And 3 more authors.
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2014

In order to assess the potential impacts of climate change in the hydrologic regime of River Pinios Basin, an area-differentiated model for total run-off (Qt) estimation based on the GROWA model was applied with bias-corrected precipitation and temperature data from four regional climate models (RCMs) for the projected periods 2020–2050 (period A) and 2050–2080 (period B). Bias correction was performed using the linear scaling approach. As a reference basis, monthly precipitation data from 57 meteorological stations and average temperature data from 17 stations were analyzed for the period 1980–2000. Relative assessments were achieved by comparing reference to projected periods values for Qt, after incorporating bias-corrected projected climate data from the four RCMs driven by several general circulation models (GCMs) as input data to the hydrological model. Results showed that all RCM–GCM combinations lead to a considerable decrease in total run-off with variable rates between the examined projected periods; the greatest reduction of Qt (62%) from the reference period was forecasted for period A (2020–2050), and was simulated when GROWA model ran with input data from HIRHAM5 model driven by ARPEGE GCM, which indicated greater decrements in precipitation and increments in temperature. Regarding the estimations of total run-off for the end of the projected periods (2080) with simulated climatic data input from HIRHAM–ARPEGE, RACMO–ECHAM5 and REMO–ECHAM5 RCM–GCM combinations, a significant adverse impact to the overall water budget is forecasted, as the total amount of Qt is decreased from 46 to 66%. On the contrary, when Qt was simulated with climatic data from RCA4 RCM driven by HadCM3, smoother rates were exhibited due to smaller variations of precipitation and temperature from the reference period and the relevant Qt reduction by the end of the projection (2080) is 22%. © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.


The Micro Prespa basin is a trilateral catchment area of significant importance with a unique ecosystem closely related to the homonymous lake. In this frame, a fully operational monitoring project was carried out including continuous real-time measurements in Micro Prespa Lake with the use of a multi-sensor probe, as well as periodical sampling and analyses of all available water systems for an extended set of 85 parameters. Four main interacting water systems were identified, including alluvial and karstic aquifers, Micro Prespa Lake and adjacent drainage network. The results outlined that general environmental conditions are satisfying in respect to the relative legislation and the hydrogeochemical signatures. However, trends of environmental pressures were ascertained as a result of natural (geogenic) factors, embracing seasonal peaks for Ni, Pb, and NH4 mainly in groundwater systems. Based on chlorophyll a records, Micro Prespa is classified as oligotrophic to slightly mesotrophic, subjected to seasonal variations. Heavy metal concentrations are low, except Ni which appears to have elevated values during the dry hydrological period. Finally, the hydrogeochemistry of drainage network is primarily influenced by surface runoff of the surrounding mountainous areas, hence elevated phosphorus values of the Aghios Germanos stream are possibly linked with the leaching of the granitic formations on the east. © 2014 Springer International Publishing.


Tziritis E.,Land Reclamation Institute | Panagopoulos A.,Land Reclamation Institute | Arampatzis G.,Land Reclamation Institute
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2014

Groundwater quality assessment and evaluation is of paramount importance in strategic planning and management at river basin scale or even larger. Depending on the available infrastructure data upon which such assessments are carried out, significant variations in terms of measured parameters and time span covered occur frequently and pose objective difficulties to environmental assessments. Still, there is a need for evaluation across such basins at regional, national or even continental scales under a common reference base. Existing methods so far focus on the comparative evaluation of a single parameter or a common set of parameters that needs to be available throughout all examined basins. Moreover, existing approaches and practices are assessing groundwater in comparison to the quality standards set for a specific use despite the fact that often these resources are covering a multitude of functions. This paper presents an index that attempts to perform a comparative assessment of groundwater quality across basins controlled by the same or different factors, subject to the same or different pressures and characterized by different availability of water quality measurements spread over the same or different time periods. It serves as an easy to implement and unbiased approach to identify water quality controlling factors. The proposed method offers on the spot assessment of groundwater quality characteristics visualized in a way that is easily conceived and comprehended. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Panagopoulos A.,Land Reclamation Institute | Arampatzis G.,Land Reclamation Institute | Kuhr P.,Land Reclamation Institute | Kunkel R.,Forschungzentrum Juelich GmbH | And 2 more authors.
Global Nest Journal | Year: 2015

GROWA is a modular grid based empirical hydrological model that is being used to address practical water resources management related issues. It has been successfully applied in typical hydrological and hydrogeological setups of northern European basins ranging typically between meso-scale river basins of about 1000 km2 to entire States or river catchments of 100,000 km2 or more. This paper examines the applicability of this model in a typical southern European environment where the typical water resources management pattern and also the controlling hydrodynamic evolution patterns differ considerably. As such, the River Pinios basin in central Greece, which has a spatial extent of some 11.000km2, is studied. Model compilation was based on long-term average climatic and hydrological data for a reference period of 23 years (1980-2002) and validation performed against 12 river discharge gauging stations distributed in the study basin. Specific discrepancies that were denoted are attributed to the importance of secondary processes in the evolution of the studied system (e.g. overall water use, groundwater crossflows). It is concluded that prior to model recalibration efforts special attention should be given to the inclusion of such processes (water gains and losses) into the model runs. Total runoff and groundwater recharge should consequently be linked to the overall water use and secondary inputs before they are used for strategic water resources management. Overall, GROWA was successfully applied in this typical Mediterranean Basin, despite the totally different climatic, pedological, hydrological and hydrogeological conditions for which it was originally designed and tested. © 2015 Global NEST.


Tzimopoulos C.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Evangelides C.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Arampatzis G.,Land Reclamation Institute
Soil Science | Year: 2015

The solution of unsaturated flow is a never-ending quest for many scientists. Many methods exist with their corresponding advantages and disadvantages, such as semianalytic methods, finite difference and finite element methods, finite control volume method, and flux concentration method. This article produces an improved approximate analytical solution for nonlinear diffusion, in terms of the Boltzmann similarity variable, that has the advantages of being explicit, accurate, and relatively simple to evaluate. It is assumed that the diffusivity can be described with an exponential function, the profiles of soil water content are of finite extent, the concentration at the boundaries is constant, and the reduced flux of Philip (1973) is of the form of Vauclin and Haverkamp (1985). The proposed explicit approximate analytical solution has the Boltzmann transformation as the dependent variable and the soil water moisture as the independent variable. The solution is presented in normalized form as a function of normalized diffusivity and normalized soil moisture. It is tested with 12 soils and shows an excellent agreement with Philip's method. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Christina G.,University of Thessaly | Konstantinos S.,University of Thessaly | Alexandros G.,University of Thessaly | Dimitrios K.,University of Thessaly | Aikaterini K.,Land Reclamation Institute
WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development | Year: 2014

The exploitation of groundwater resources is of high importance and has become very crucial the last decades especially in coastal areas of Central Greece, due to urbanization, tourist development and intensive agriculture. The phenomenon of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers is a significant environmental issue in Greece that nowadays is considered as pollution of groundwater, which could pose a threat to human's health through direct consumption or through irrigation processes. The objectives of this study are to identify and investigate the extent of seawater intrusion in the Nea Anchialos basin in Central Greece. For this purpose, 45 groundwater samples were collected from the study area and analyzed for certain parameters that indicated salinisation of the aquifers. Specifically, water chemical analysis were conducted and statistical analysis regarding spatial distribution were performed. The results demonstrated increased values of the parameters which can be attributed to seawater intrusion. Laboratory analyses indicated that Electrical Conductivity, concentration for the basic cations (Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+ and K+), HCO3 -, Cl-, and SO4 -2 varied greatly. Furthermore, maximum NO3 -concentration was 138 mg/L and this can be attributed to overexploitation of coastal aquifer for agricultural activities. The results indicated seawater intrusion in the north-eastern part of the study area. Hydrochemical maps were compiled using SURFER version 7 Software, based on models Shepard and Inverse Distance to a Power (IDP), in order to present the results in an integrated way and demonstrate the "hotspots" of pollution.


Arampatzis G.,Land Reclamation Institute | Hatzigiannakis E.,Land Reclamation Institute | Evangelides C.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Panagopoulos A.,Land Reclamation Institute
Global Nest Journal | Year: 2014

Crop irrigation, especially in irrigation networks, often consumes larger quantities of irrigation water than necessary since most of the times irrigation is carried out empirically and not based on actual crop requirements. The aim of this work is the management of irrigation water though the use of meteorological data. This approach was utilized for the first time in Greece and applied in a pilot area of about 6,000 ha at the Local Organization of Land Reclamation in Nigrita. The method is based on accurate calculation of daily evapotranspiration of the common cultivations at the area (maize, cotton, alfalfa), using meteorological data. Thus irrigation is organized based on actual water consumption of the crops ensuring the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of their products. © 2014 Global NEST Printed in Greece. All rights reserved.


Mattas C.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Voudouris K.S.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Panagopoulos A.,Land Reclamation Institute
Water (Switzerland) | Year: 2014

The Gallikos River basin is located in the northern part of Greece, and the coastal section is part of a deltaic system. The basin has been influenced by anthropogenic activities during the last decades, leading to continuous water resource degradation. The holistic approach of the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework was applied in order to investigate the main causes and origins of pressures and to optimize the measures for sustainable management of water resources. The major driving forces that affect the Gallikos River basin are urbanization, intensive agriculture, industry and the regional development strategy. The main pressures on water resources are the overexploitation of aquifers, water quality degradation, and decrease of river discharge. Recommended responses were based on the Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60/EC, and sum up to rationalization of water resources, land use management and appropriate utilization of waste, especially so effluent. The application of the DPSIR analysis in this paper links the socioeconomic drivers to the water resource pressures, the responses based on the WFD and the national legislation and is as a useful tool for land-use planning and decision making in the area of water protection. © 2014 by the authors.


PubMed | Land Reclamation Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology | Year: 2012

There is an increasing concern regarding elevated levels of Cr(VI) in the environment due to its higher mobility and toxicity compared to the trivalent form. Anomalous hexavalent chromium concentrations (up to 212 g/L) were determined in irrigated groundwaters from the wider area of Thiva Basin (central Greece), frequently exceeding the permissible limit for human consumption (50 g/L for total Cr). Based on the spatial distribution of Cr(VI) values, two groups of groundwater samples were distinguished, possibly reflecting different natural and/or anthropogenic factors that govern the levels of contamination. The first group is spatially located northwards of Thiva town and is consisted of concentrations that range from 13 to 212 g/L (median 58 g/L), while the second group is located near Mouriki village and Cr(VI) values range from <9 to 14 g/L. The Cr(VI) chemical anomalies represent an important social problem because the agricultural products of this region are a major vegetable supply for Greece, bringing up the urgent need to evaluate the health effects associated with Cr(VI) exposure by ingesting the potentially contaminated foods.

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