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Tiffin R.,University of Reading | Arnoult M.,Land economics and Environment Research Group
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

Background/Objectives:Previous studies have analysed impacts on average intakes. Agueably however intakes that are of real concern are those which are some distance away from the recommendations. Fiscal measures might have a limited impact on such diets, and as a result, on health. We measure the impact of a fiscal intervention on the the risks of diet-related disease, accounting for the full range of diets.Subjects/Methods:Demand equations are estimated with data collected from 6760 households in the UK Expenditure and Food Survey. The model is used to simulate the impacts of a policy, in which a tax based on saturated fat content is combined with subsidy on fruit and vegetables. Changes in consumption are used to compute the effects on the risks of a range of diet-related disease using measures of relative risk. In contrast with other studies, we simulate the impacts of the fiscal regime at the level of the individual households in the sample.Results:The subsidy brings mean levels of fruit and vegetable consumption in line with dietary recommendations, but the tax is insufficient to achieve this goal for fat intakes. Once the changes in diet are converted into changes in the risks of disease, the impacts of the policy are negligible. A substantial part of the population continues to consume an unhealthy diet.Conclusion:Fiscally based interventions should be considered amongst a suite of policy interventions, which also include policies aimed at improving the poorest of diets. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Glenk K.,Macaulay Institute | Glenk K.,Land economics and Environment Research Group | Colombo S.,Centro Camino Of Purchil
Climatic Change | Year: 2011

Soil carbon sequestration has been regarded as a cheap and cost-effective way to sequester carbon until other technologies to tackle climate change become available or more cost-effective. An assessment of the social desirability of a soil carbon sequestration policy requires the consideration of all associated social costs and benefits. Measures to re-accumulate carbon in soils have ancillary or co-effects on the environment that can be beneficial or detrimental to social welfare and few of which are traded in markets. This paper discusses issues related to the development of soil carbon sequestration policies into agri-environmental schemes and reports findings from an application of a choice experiment to elicit preferences and estimate benefits of a soil carbon programme in Scotland under consideration of co-effects on biodiversity and rural viability. Preferences for soil carbon based mitigation are found to be heterogeneous and related to beliefs about climate change and attitudes towards its mitigation. Benefit estimates suggest that including co-effects can significantly change the outcome of cost-benefit tests. Implications for the development of climate change policies are discussed. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Farmer J.,UHI Millennium Institute | Philip L.,University of Aberdeen | King G.,University of Aberdeen | Farrington J.,University of Aberdeen | MacLeod M.,Land economics and Environment Research Group
Health and Place | Year: 2010

This paper presents findings from a qualitative study investigating older people's health service provision in remote rural Scotland. Comparing stakeholders' perspectives, contested issues were exposed where community members, service managers and policymakers disagreed. Considering these, led to the proposal that fundamental tensions exist between community and management/policy stakeholders' perspectives and these underlie service change conflicts. While highlighting issues for older people's service design, findings suggest that impacts of the current planning process require to be understood, and aspects need to be changed, before the voice of older people can inform local service policy. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Alexander P.,Land economics and Environment Research Group
Journal of the Royal Society, Interface / the Royal Society | Year: 2013

Biomass produced from energy crops, such as Miscanthus and short rotation coppice is expected to contribute to renewable energy targets, but the slower than anticipated development of the UK market implies the need for greater understanding of the factors that govern adoption. Here, we apply an agent-based model of the UK perennial energy crop market, including the contingent interaction of supply and demand, to understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of energy crop adoption. Results indicate that perennial energy crop supply will be between six and nine times lower than previously published, because of time lags in adoption arising from a spatial diffusion process. The model simulates time lags of at least 20 years, which is supported empirically by the analogue of oilseed rape adoption in the UK from the 1970s. This implies the need to account for time lags arising from spatial diffusion in evaluating land-use change, climate change (mitigation or adaptation) or the adoption of novel technologies.

Barnes A.P.,Land economics and Environment Research Group | Islam M.,Nottingham Trent University | Toma L.,Land economics and Environment Research Group
Applied Geography | Year: 2013

Livestock production has been criticized for its effect on greenhouse gas emissions and policy makers are now supporting actions to reduce these impact. Voluntary adoption of these actions will be precluded by the farmer perception of the risks from a changing climate. We employ a latent class clustering approach to understand the heterogeneity within a sample of dairy farmers, based on 8 statements related to climate change risk.The majority of farmers are found to be 'confused moderates' who have no strong opinion towards the possible future impacts of climate change. Two further classes emerged, namely 'deniers' and 'risk perceivers'. We find that higher education levels have an influence on increasing risk perception, as does the intention to pass the farm onto another family member. Membership of agri-environmental schemes does not preclude awareness or acceptance of climate change risk, principally due to the lack of emphasis on greenhouse gas emissions within these schemes. In addition, use of social networks seems to be a significant factor in raising the profile of risk perception within farmer decision-making.We conclude that advisors and those engaging with the farming community must accommodate climate messages in their communication strategies. Furthermore, emphasis on the greenhouse gas benefits from adoption of agri-environmental schemes would seem to be an efficient vehicle for raising the risk profile of climate change and influence future uptake of Government and industry supported actions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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