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George J.A.,University of Witwatersrand | Norris S.A.,University of Witwatersrand | Van Deventer H.E.,Lancet Laboratories | Pettifor J.M.,University of Witwatersrand | Crowther N.J.,University of Witwatersrand
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in the aetiology of infectious diseases and metabolic syndrome. These diseases are prevalent in the African and Asian-Indian populations of South Africa; however, there is limited data on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in these populations. The aim of the present study was to assess the vitamin D status and its predictors in healthy adults in Johannesburg. We assessed the vitamin D status of 730 adult African and Asian-Indian subjects residing in Johannesburg. The contributions of sun exposure, season, dietary intake of Ca and vitamin D, total body fat and body fat distribution to 25(OH)D concentrations were assessed. The concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured by HPLC. The contribution of 25(OH)D3 to total 25(OH)D concentrations was assessed. The mean age of the subjects was 42·6 (sd 13·1) years (range: 18-65). Concentrations of 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/l were found in 28·6 % of the Asian-Indian subjects in comparison with 5·1 % of the African subjects (P< 0·0001). Parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations were negatively associated with 25(OH)D concentrations, while season and sun exposure were positive predictors explaining 16 % of the variance in 25(OH)D concentrations (P< 0·0001) in the African subjects. In the Asian-Indian subjects, PTH concentrations were negatively associated with 25(OH)D concentrations, while male sex, season and Ca supplementation were positive predictors and explained 17 % of the variance in 25(OH)D concentrations (P< 0·0001). In the multivariate regression analysis, neither total body fat nor body fat distribution was predictive of 25(OH)D concentrations in either group. In conclusion, factors such as sun exposure, dietary supplement use and ethnicity are important determinants of plasma 25(OH)D concentrations. © 2014 The Authors. Source


George J.A.,University of Witwatersrand | Norris S.A.,University of Witwatersrand | van Deventer H.E.,Lancet Laboratories | Crowther N.J.,University of Witwatersrand
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Introduction: Though inconsistent, a number of studies have shown an association between vitamin D (25(OH)D) status, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the metabolic syndrome (Met S). These have largely been carried out in Caucasians or black subjects living in high income countries. There no data on the relationship of 25(OH)D and PTH status with Met S in populations resident in Africa. The aims of this study were to evaluate if there was an association of 25(OH)D or PTH with Met S in non-Caucasian populations in South Africa, and whether these molecules explained ethnic differences in the prevalence of Met S and its individual components. Methods: We measured anthropometry, serum 25(OH)D and PTH levels and the components of Met S, plus related metabolic variables, in 374 African and 350 Asian Indian healthy adults from the greater Johannesburg metropolitan area. Results: Met S was diagnosed in 29% of the African and 46% of the Asian Indian subjects (p<0.0001). Subjects with Met S had higher PTH than those without Met S, (p<0.0001), whilst 25(OH)D levels were not significantly different (p = 0.50). In multivariate analysis, 25(OH)D was not associated with any components of the Met S however PTH was shown to be positively associated with systolic (p = 0.018) and diastolic (p = 0.005) blood pressures and waist circumference (p<0.0001) and negatively associated with HOMA (p = 0.0008) levels. Logistic regression analysis showed that Asian Indian ethnicity (OR 2.24; 95% CIs 1.57, 3.18; p<0.0001) and raised PTH (OR 2.48; 95% CIs 1.01, 6.08; p = 0.04; adjusted for 25(OH)D) produced an increased risk of Met S but 25(OH)D did not (OR 1.25; 95% CI 0.67, 2.24; p = 0.48). Conclusions: Plasma PTH but not 25(OH)D is an independent predictor of the Met S in African and Asian Indians in South Africa. © 2013 George et al. Source


Moolman J.,Lancet Laboratories | Pitout J.,University of Calgary
South African Medical Journal | Year: 2012

We describe the first known report of a VIM1 metallo-betalactamase- producing Klebsiella pneumonia outside Europe -confirmed by our colleagues in Canada. The patient had no travel history, and surveillance failed to identify additional cases. The importance of healthcare professionals being diligent in identifying these multi-drug resistant isolates is emphasised. Source


Vardas E.,Lancet Laboratories | Vardas E.,Stellenbosch University | Stanescu I.,FIT Biotech | Leinonen M.,4Pharma Ltd. | And 5 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2012

Background: Combination highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly decreased HIV-1 related morbidity and mortality globally transforming HIV into a controllable condition. HAART has a number of limitations though, including limited access in resource constrained countries, which have driven the search for simpler, affordable HIV-1 treatment modalities. Therapeutic HIV-1 vaccines aim to provide immunological support to slow disease progression and decrease transmission. We evaluated the safety, immunogenicity and clinical effect of a novel recombinant plasmid DNA therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine, GTU®-multi-HIVB, containing 6 different genes derived from an HIV-1 subtype B isolate. Methods: 63 untreated, healthy, HIV-1 infected, adults between 18 and 40 years were enrolled in a single-blinded, placebo-controlled Phase II trial in South Africa. Subjects were HIV-1 subtype C infected, had never received antiretrovirals, with CD4≥350cells/mm3 and pHIV-RNA≥50copies/mL at screening. Subjects were allocated to vaccine or placebo groups in a 2:1 ratio either administered intradermally (ID) (0.5mg/dose) or intramuscularly (IM) (1mg/dose) at 0, 4 and 12 weeks boosted at 76 and 80 weeks with 1mg/dose (ID) and 2mg/dose (IM), respectively. Safety was assessed by adverse event monitoring and immunogenicity by HIV-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells using intracellular cytokine staining (ICS), pHIV-RNA and CD4 counts. Results: Vaccine was safe and well tolerated with no vaccine related serious adverse events. Significant declines in log. pHIV-RNA (. p=. 0.012) and increases in CD4+ T cell counts (. p=. 0.066) were observed in the vaccine group compared to placebo, more pronounced after IM administration and in some HLA haplotypes (B*5703) maintained for 17 months after the final immunisation. Conclusions: The GTU®-multi-HIVB plasmid recombinant DNA therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine is safe, well tolerated and favourably affects pHIV-RNA and CD4 counts in untreated HIV-1infected individuals after IM administration in subjects with HLA B*57, B*8101 and B*5801haplotypes. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Van Deventer H.E.,Lancet Laboratories | Soldin S.J.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Advances in Clinical Chemistry | Year: 2013

This review discusses the state-of-the-art measurement of free and total thyroid hormones in clinical laboratories. We highlight some of the limitations of currently used immunoassays and critically discuss physical separation methods for the measurement of free thyroid hormone. Physical separation methods, such as equilibrium dialysis or ultrafiltration, followed by tandem mass spectrometry for the measurement of free thyroid hormones offer many advantages, which we feel, can deepen our understanding of thyroid hormone metabolism and improve patient diagnosis and care. Problems with direct analogue immunoassay methods for FT4/FT3 as well as immunoassay methods for total T3 at low T3 concentrations and during pregnancy are highlighted. Improved diagnosis and patient management can be achieved utilizing tandem mass spectrometry for these measurements. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

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