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Lancaster, United Kingdom

Toomey A.H.,Lancaster Environment Center | Domroese M.C.,CNRS Center for Marine Biodiversity, Exploitation and Conservation
Human Ecology Review | Year: 2013

Citizen science-the partnering of scientists with members of the public to do research-is increasingly utilized in environmental research, having been credited with enabling studies that would otherwise be cost-prohibitive while promoting scientific literacy and empowering and engaging participants in conservation. Although the value of citizen-generated data for scientific purposes is increasingly accepted, and there is a growing recognition of the role of citizen science in developing science literacy, there has been little investigation of its link to conservation outcomes-particularly in terms of volunteers' further engagement in conservation. This paper reviews the literature on the relationship between participation in citizen science and conservation attitude and behavior changes, and looks at the relevance of theoretical models to shed light on possible drivers of such changes. We discuss two citizen science projects in the New York metropolitan area-the Great Pollinator Project and the Earthwatch Coyote Project-as illustrations of the impact of citizen science on attitudes and behaviors as perceived by participants. We offer recommendations for further research on facilitating conservation outcomes through citizen science. © Society for Human Ecology. Source

Manninen S.,University of Helsinki | Woods C.,Lancaster Environment Center | Leith I.D.,CEH Edinburgh | Sheppard L.J.,CEH Edinburgh
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2011

Sphagna are vulnerable to enhanced nitrogen (N) deposition. This article reports how the green (shade, under Calluna) and red (open grown) Sphagnum capillifolium respond to ammonium and nitrate additions of 56kg Nha-1y-1 over the background of 8-10kg Nha-1y-1 on an ombrotrophic bog in the Scottish Borders after seven years. Samples and measurements were made during a range of hydrated and desiccated conditions in the summer of 2009. Both ammonium and nitrate increased moss N concentration, but while ammonium decreased cross-sectional area of leaf hyaline cells and the leaf hyaline/chlorophyllose cell area ratio, nitrate increased both of them and capitulum pH. The changes in leaf morphology have not previously been reported to our knowledge. Especially the red S. capillifolium was affected by ammonium with significant changes in shoot N concentration (+71%) and the cross-sectional area of leaf chlorophyllose cells (+67%), and reductions in shoot dry weight (-30%) and fresh weight (-42%), the cross-sectional area of leaf hyaline cells (-24%), the leaf hyaline/chlorophyllose cell area ratio (-54%), as well as in chlorophyll fluorescence (measured as Fv/Fm) of desiccated capitulum (-65%) (all p<0.05). These observations show that N deposition may affect moss physiology also through changes in leaf anatomy and morphology. The results also highlight potential sampling issues and causes of variability in N responses when collecting variably pigmented Sphagna. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Cincinelli A.,University of Florence | Pieri F.,University of Florence | Martellini T.,University of Florence | Passaponti M.,University of Florence | And 3 more authors.
Aerosol and Air Quality Research | Year: 2014

Air samples were collected both at an urban and an industrial area of Florence (Italy) in order to evaluate the occurrence, profiles, seasonal variation and gas/particle partitioning of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The mean total (gas + particle phase) PBDE concentrations were 42.8 ± 7.8 and 89.0 ± 21.1 pg/m3 in the urban and industrial sites, respectively. In all samples, BDE-209 was the most abundant congener, followed by BDE-47 and BDE-153 in the industrial site, and by BDE-99 in the urban site. The Σ6PBDE (sum of BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, 153, -154) concentrations in the urban (12.1-27.9 pg/m3) and industrialised (21.4-44.3 pg/m3) sites were comparable to, or slightly lower than measured at other sites. The partition coefficient of PBDEs between the gas and particle phases (Kp) was well correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure (P°L) for all samples. The measured particulate sorption of PBDEs was compared to the predictions from Junge-Pankow (J/P) model and KOA absorption model. While the Junge-Pankow model tends to overestimate the particulate sorption, the KOA based model seemed to fit the PBDE data. © Taiwan Association for Aerosol Research. Source

Gibbard P.L.,University of Cambridge | Boreham S.,University of Cambridge | Andrews J.E.,University of East Anglia | Maher B.A.,Lancaster Environment Center
Quaternary International | Year: 2010

The sedimentary succession of the West Runton Freshwater Bed (WRFB) is described and interpreted. The sediments represent a fluvial valley floor accumulation that trends west- to east, subparallel to the modern cliffline. Stabilisation of the stream channels was initially followed by deposition of fine-grained silt in standing water, punctuated by intermittent flood events. Decreased flood intensity resulted in vertical accretion of fine-grained, organic, fossiliferous sediments in carbonate-rich spring water. Increased organic deposition produced a transition to black detrital sediment. Periodic flooding continued, but flood frequency decreased in response to reduction in accommodation. Local erosion of channel banks and floors also occurred. The sediments were disturbed by water-release structures and bioturbation, the latter resulting from large mammals locally entering the channel and pools, churning the deposits during walking, bathing and so on. River-flow velocity diminished later as forest vegetation stabilised catchment and valley-floor ground surfaces. Stabilisation of the channel led to deposition from low-velocity flowing and standing water. The uppermost part of the succession indicates vertical accretion, sheet-like deposition. The organic silts were deposited in an anoxic environment, and organic sulphur from rotting organic matter allowed formation of early diagenetic sulphides. Deposition began during the late-glacial (Beestonian Stage) and continued into the first half of a temperate-climate, interglacial event (the Cromerian Stage s.s.). The infill comprises an overall fining-upward sequence, the stream adopted a stable meandering pattern. The WRFB stream showed typical chalk-stream behaviour. The magnetic polarity of the WRFB sediments is normal. The palaeomagnetic data indicates that the sediments are of Brunhes Chron age, and imply that they post-date mid-MIS 19. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. Source

Mitchard E.T.A.,University of Edinburgh | Saatchi S.S.,Jet Propulsion Laboratory | Lewis S.L.,University of Leeds | Feldpausch T.R.,University of Leeds | And 4 more authors.
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2011

Satellite L-band synthetic aperture radar backscatter data from 1996 and 2007 (from JERS-1 and ALOS PALSAR respectively), were used with field data collected in 2007 and a back-calibration method to produce biomass maps of a 15000km2 forest-savanna ecotone region of central Cameroon. The relationship between the radar backscatter and aboveground biomass (AGB) was strong (r2=0.86 for ALOS HV to biomass plots, r2=0.95 relating ALOS-derived biomass for 40 suspected unchanged regions to JERS-1 HH). The root mean square error (RMSE) associated with AGB estimation varied from ~25% for AGB<100Mgha-1 to ~40% for AGB>100Mgha-1 for the ALOS HV data. Change detection showed a significant loss of AGB over high biomass forests, due to suspected deforestation and degradation, and significant biomass gains along the forest-savanna boundary, particularly in areas of low population density. Analysis of the errors involved showed that radar data can detect changes in broad AGB class in forest-savanna transition areas with an accuracy >95%. However, quantitative assessment of changes in AGB in Mgha-1 at a pixel level will require radar images from sensors with similar characteristics collecting data from the same season over multiple years. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

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