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Sankaranarayanan R.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Swaminathan R.,Cancer Institute WIA | Brenner H.,German Cancer Research Center | Chen K.,Tianjin Medical University | And 25 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2010

Background: Population-based cancer survival data, a key indicator for monitoring progress against cancer, are not widely available from countries in Africa, Asia, and Central America. The aim of this study is to describe and discuss cancer survival in these regions. Methods: Survival analysis was done for 341 658 patients diagnosed with various cancers from 1990 to 2001 and followed up to 2003, from 25 population-based cancer registries in 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (The Gambia, Uganda), Central America (Costa Rica), and Asia (China, India, Pakistan, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand, Turkey). 5-year age-standardised relative survival (ASRS) and observed survival by clinical extent of disease were determined. Findings: For cancers in which prognosis depends on stage at diagnosis, survival was highest in China, South Korea, Singapore, and Turkey and lowest in Uganda and The Gambia. 5-year ASRS ranged from 76-82% for breast cancer, 63-79% for cervical cancer, 71-78% for bladder cancer, and 44-60% for large-bowel cancers in China, Singapore, South Korea, and Turkey. Survival did not exceed 22% for any cancer site in The Gambia; in Uganda, survival did not exceed 13% for any cancer site except breast (46%). Variations in survival correlated with early detection initiatives and level of development of health services. Interpretation: The wide variation in cancer survival between regions emphasises the need for urgent investments in improving awareness, population-based cancer registration, early detection programmes, health-services infrastructure, and human resources. Funding: Association for International Cancer Research (AICR; St Andrews, UK), Association pour la Recherche sur le Cancer (ARC, Villejuif, France), and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (Seattle, USA). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Akatsu C.,Hokkaido University | Fongmoon D.,Hokkaido University | Fongmoon D.,Chiang Mai University | Fongmoon D.,Lampang Cancer Center | And 5 more authors.
Glycoconjugate Journal | Year: 2010

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) like chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS) are synthesized on the tetrasaccharide linkage region, GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-3Galβ1-4Xylβ1-O-Ser, of proteoglycans. The Xyl can be modified by 2-O-phosphate in both CS and HS, whereas the Gal residues can be sulfated at C-4 and/or C-6 in CS but not in HS. To study the roles of these modifications, monoclonal antibodies were developed against linkage glycopeptides of shark cartilage CS proteoglycans, and one was characterized in detail. This antibody bound hexaand pentasaccharide-peptides more strongly than unsaturated tetrasaccharide-peptides with the unnatural fourth sugar residue (unsaturated hexuronic acid), suggesting the importance of the fifth and/or fourth saccharide residue GalNAc-5 and/or GlcA-4. Its reactivity was not affected by treatment with chondro-4-sulfatase or alkaline phosphatase, suggesting that 4-O-sulfate on the Gal residues and 2-Ophosphate on the Xyl residue were not recognized. Treatment with weak alkali to cleave the Xyl-Ser linkage completely abolished the binding activity, suggesting the importance of the peptide moiety of the hexasaccharidepeptide for the binding. Based on the amino acid composition and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses, it was revealed that the peptide moiety is composed of four amino acids, Ser, Pro, Gly, and Glu. Furthermore, the antibody stained wild-type CHO cells significantly, but much weakly mutant cells deficient in xylosyl- or galactosyltransferase-I required for the biosynthesis of the linkage region. These results suggest that the antibody recognizes the structure GalNAc (±6-O-sulfate)-GlcA-Gal-Gal-Xyl-Ser-(Pro, Gly, Glu). The antibody will be a useful tool for investigating the significance of the linkage region in the biosynthesis and/or intracellular transport of different GAG chains especially since such tools to study the linkage region are lacking. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.


Ekburanawat W.,Nopparat Rajthanee Hospital | Ekpanyaskul C.,Srinakharinwirot University | Brennan P.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Kanka C.,Lopburi Cancer Center | And 5 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2010

Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is rare in most populations but common in Southern China and Southeast Asia. To understand the role of environmental exposures on risk of NPC, a case-control study was conducted among 327 newly diagnosed case of NPC and 327 controls matched to case on sex, age and geographic residence. Information was collected by interviewer about demographic variables, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, eating habits, past history of disease, family history of cancer and a lifetime history of every job that was held for one year or longer. The result indicates that cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk of NPC (OR= 2.41, 95% CI 1.61-3.6). There was indication of increased risk with a history chronic ear or nose disease (OR= 2.71, 95% CI 1.45-5.06). Occupational exposure to wood dust was also associated with a higher risk (OR= 1.63 95% CI 1.02-2.61). Furthermore, lower education was found to be positively associated with NPC (OR= 2.71, 95% CI 1.45-5.06). There was no association between NPC and salted fish intake (OR= 1.38, 95% CI 0.84-2.25) or alcohol consumption (OR= 0.88, 95% CI 0.58-1.33). Our results suggest that cigarette smoking, past history of ear or nose disease and occupational exposure to wood dust may play a role in the development of NPC in the Thai population.


Suwanrungruang K.,Prince of Songkla University | Suwanrungruang K.,Khon Kaen University | Sriplung H.,Prince of Songkla University | Attasara P.,National Cancer Institute | And 6 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2011

Background: The ability and behaviour of the capture-recapture method using a virtual three-source model for evaluation of the level of completeness of case ascertainment requires exploration. Methods: Cancer cases obtained from 9 population-based cancer registries in Thailand during 2003 to 2007 were applied for capturerecapture using a model based on clinical, pathological and mortality data. These three virtual sources were derived from three actual items common to all cancer registries: the basis of diagnosis, ICD-O morphology code, and last known patient status. Poisson regression models were fit to the data to estimate parameters which were then transformed into demographic values. A linear model was used to determine the predictors and estimated percentage of completeness (EPC) in case ascertainment among the cancer registries. Results: The EPC was greater than 97% in 5 and less than 90% in 4 registries. The worst had an EPC of 70%. The percentage death certificate only (%DCO) and the interaction between %DCO and morphological verification (MV) were significantly associated with EPC. Other factors intrinsic to registries also exerted influence on the EPC. Conclusions: In addition to other standard indicators to monitor completeness of cancer registries, the present virtual three-source capture-recapture model can be routinely used to estimate the level of completeness of case ascertainment in cancer registries.


Suwanrungruang K.,Prince of Songkla University | Suwanrungruang K.,Khon Kaen University | Sriplung H.,Prince of Songkla University | Temiyasathit S.,Udon Thani Cancer Center | And 5 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2011

Background: The magnitude of differences in mortality incidence (M:I) ratios derived from the national mortality source and those derived from cancer registry (CR) databases may be used to determine associated factors. Methods: All information on cancer incidence cases and mortality cases from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2007 were retrieved from 5 population-based cancer registries in four regions of Thailand. Two sources of mortality were used: death cases within the cancer registries and mortality statistics obtained from the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH). Plots of percentage M:I ratios from cancer registry databases and from national mortality sources against 1 minus 5 years relative survival (1-5yrRS) were used to visualize the correlation between the two mortality sources. A Poisson regression model was used to determine the influence of cancer sites and registries on the M:I ratio/[1-5yrRS]. Results: There was high variability between the standard M:I ratio derived from national mortality compared with 1-5 year RS. The factors affecting M:I ratios are sources of mortality data and misclassification of topographic site as the cause of death. Conclusions: Use of the M:I ratio is not recommended to evaluate completeness of cancer registry data when the quality of mortality data is poor.


Hashiguchi T.,Hokkaido University | Kobayashi T.,Hokkaido University | Fongmoon D.,Hokkaido University | Fongmoon D.,Lampang Cancer Center | And 6 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2011

Background: Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a ubiquitous component of the cell surface and extracellular matrix and its sugar backbone consists of repeating disaccharide units: D-glucuronic acid (GlcUA)β1-3N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc). Although CS participates in diverse biological processes such as growth factor signaling and the nervous system's development, the mechanism underlying the functions is not well understood. Methods: CS was isolated from ray fish cartilage, an industrial waste, and its structure and neurite outgrowth-promoting (NOP) activity were analyzed to investigate a potential application to nerve regeneration. Results: The major disaccharide unit in the CS preparation was GlcUA-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate) (61.9%). Minor proportions of GlcUA-GalNAc(4-O-sulfate) (27.0%), GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate) (8.5%), and GlcUA-GalNAc (2.7%) were also detected. The preparation showed NOP activity in vitro, and this activity was suppressed by antibodies against hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor c-Met, suggesting the involvement of the HGF signaling pathway in the expression of the in vitro NOP activity of the CS preparation. The specific binding of HGF to the CS preparation was also demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Conclusions and general significance: The NOP activity of CS from ray cartilage was demonstrated to be expressed through the HGF signaling pathway, suggesting that ray cartilage CS may be useful for studying the cooperative function of CS and HGF. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Iamsaard S.,Khon Kaen University | Fongmoon D.,Lampang Cancer Center
Acta medica academica | Year: 2014

This study aimed to investigate the sensitivity of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and sperm acrosome reaction (AR) to monosodium L- glutamate (MSG) in rats. Rats were divided into four groups and fed with non-acidic MSG at 0.25, 3 or 6 g/kg body weight for 30 days or without MSG. The morphological changes in the reproductive organs were studied. The plasma testosterone level, epididymal sperm concentration, and sperm AR status were assayed. Compared to the control, no significant changes were discerned in the morphology and weight of the testes, or the histological structures of epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicle. In contrast, significant decreases were detected in the weight of the epididymis, testosterone levels, and sperm concentration of rats treated with 6 g/kg body weight of MSG. The weight loss was evident in the seminal vesicle in MSG-administered rats. Moreover, rats treated with MSG 3 and 6 g/kg exhibited partial testicular damage, characterized by sloughing of spermatogenic cells into the seminiferous tubular lumen, and their plasma testosterone levels were significantly decreased. In the 6 g/kg MSG group, the sperm concentration was significantly decreased compared with the control or two lower dose MSG groups. In AR assays, there was no statistically significant difference between MSG-rats and normal rats. Testicular morphological changes, testosterone level, and sperm concentration were sensitive to high doses of MSG while the rate of AR was not affected. Therefore, the consumption of high dose MSG must be avoided because it may cause partial infertility in male. Copyright © 2014 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.


Martin N.,Lampang Cancer Center
IARC scientific publications | Year: 2011

The Lampang cancer registry was established in 1995, with retrospective data collection since 1988. Cancer registration is currently done by passive methods. The registry is contributing data on survival for 40 cancer sites or types registered during 1990-2000. Follow-up has been carried out by passive and active methods with median follow-up ranging from 1-74 months for different cancers. The proportion having a histologically verified diagnosis for various cancers ranged between 30-100%; death certificate only (DCO) cases comprised 0-33%; 67-100% of total registered cases were included for survival analysis. Complete follow-up at five years ranged from 96-100% for different cancers. The 5-year age-standardized relative survival rate was the highest for skin non-melanoma (85%) followed by lip (81%), thyroid (74%), corpus uteri (71%) and penis (71%). The 5-year relative survival by age group showed a fluctuating trend. An overwhelmingly high proportion of cases were diagnosed with a regional spread of disease, ranging from 35-68% for different cancers, and survival was decreasing with increasing extent of disease for most cancers studied.

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