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Tegbaru A.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | Tegbaru A.,Lambourn And Co. | Fitzsimons J.,University of Guelph | Gurung B.,Cultural Anthropologist and Gender Consultant | Odame H.H.,University of Guelph
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2010

This paper explores the managerial and transformative approaches to gender mainstreaming in order to draw a more comprehensive understanding of how institutional and behavioural change processes occur with regard to gender equality. Drawing from the managerial and efficiency path, and planning tools used in implementing a project in Northern Nigeria, Promoting Sustainable Agriculture in Bomo State or PROSAB, and by exploring largely unintended/unforeseen consequences of project actions, the paper argues that change in gender relations should be viewed not as outcome of technology transfer following a simple input-output model conceptualised largely in linear terms, but rather as a complex social phenomenon based on people's interests, motivations, relationships, and innovative actions that are embedded in their historical and cultural situations. It suggests that the managerial and efficiency approaches are insufficient to encourage change in gender relations. Drawing from the case of PROSAB, the paper underlines the importance of a transformative approach that understands change processes in gender relations and success in women empowerment, which are influenced by the interplay of multiple factors that are not project controlled.


Kamara A.Y.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | Kamara A.Y.,Lambourn And Co. | Ellis-Jones J.,Agriculture 4 Development | Ekeleme F.,Michael Okpara University of Agriculture | And 7 more authors.
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2010

A number of improved varieties have been developed by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), combining diverse plant type with resistance or tolerance to several diseases, insect pests, and parasitic weeds and possessing other good agronomic traits. Trials were established with farmers to evaluate several new IITA-bred cowpea varieties on-farm in a process of participatory varietal selection. Central to this has been a 'mother-daughter' approach with researcher-managed 'mother' trials and farmer-managed 'daughter' trials in order to combine researchers' and farmers' criteria in evaluation of new varieties. In both set of trials, new varieties IT89KD-391, IT97K-499-35, and IT89KD-288 were favoured by farmers because of their high grain and fodder yields. Farmers have also shown interest in the continuous use of a local variety Kanannado Brown. It is suitable for relay intercropping; having a creeping habit, and the ability to smother weeds. The brown seeds fetch higher market prices. The implications are that improved cowpea varieties should be suitable for relayintercropping and controlling weeds, be brown in colour, have large grain size, be pest resistant as well as give high yields of grain and fodder. At the same time, it is important that the farmer's criteria should be considered in breeding and varietal selection programmes. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


Oikeh S.O.,Africa Rice Center | Houngnandan P.,University Abomey Calavi | Abaidoo R.C.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | Abaidoo R.C.,Lambourn And Co. | And 4 more authors.
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems | Year: 2010

Integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) involving a nitrogen-fixing grain legume, limited chemical fertilizer, and a resilient rice variety may reduce the rate of soil fertility loss and enhance rice productivity in fragile upland rice ecosystems. A 2-year, on-farm study was carried out at Eglimé in the southern Guinea savanna (SGS) and Ouake in the northern Guinea savanna (NGS) of the Republic of Benin to evaluate the contribution of dual-purpose soybean cultivars (Glycine max) to grain yield of upland NERICA® rice receiving low fertilizer N. In 2005, four dual-purpose, promiscuous soybean varieties (cv. TGX 1440-IE, TGX 1448-2E, TGX 1019-2EB, and TGX 1844-18E), a popular soybean variety (cv. Jupiter), and a popular rice (control) were sown in ten farmers' fields. In 2006, resilient upland interspecific rice (NERICA1) and popular rice (IRAT-136) were sown in all plots with only 15 kg N ha-1. Soybean cv. TGX 1440-1E (late-maturing) ranked highest in nodulation, dry matter, shoot- and grain-N accumulation, and N-balance (21 kg ha-1) in NGS, while TGX 1448-2E (medium-maturing) surpassed other varieties in the SGS. Nitrogen fertilizer replacement value for growing cv. TGX 1440-1E in NGS prior to rice ranged from 17 to 45 kg N ha-1 depending on the reference rice. Grain yield of NERICA1 following 1-year rotation with soybean cv. TGX 1440-1E or TGX 1019-2EB was 1.5 Mg ha-1 greater than the yield obtained from farmers' control of 2-year continuous IRAT 136 rice cropping. Results indicate that integrating appropriate dual-purpose soybean in an ISFM package can enhance rice productivity in resource-limited smallholder production systems. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Obidiegwu J.,Lambourn And Co. | Obidiegwu J.,National Root Crops Research Institute | Obidiegwu J.,Michael Okpara University of Agriculture | Rodriguez E.,University of Aveiro | And 7 more authors.
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2010

Dioscorea alata L. is a highly important crop, widely distributed in the humid and semi-humid tropics. Flow cytometry was used to determine the ploidy levels of 74 D. alata genotypes collected mainly from West African countries. Sixty three of the genotypes were found to be tetraploid, one was hexaploid and ten were octoploid. The high percentage of tetraploids together with the small percentage of hexaploid individuals and the absence of diploid individuals gives us some more clues on the possible origin of these species. No association between ploidy level and place of cultivation was found for the tested material. The obtained results represent important knowledge for enhancing the breeding methodologies and optimize germplasm management of this species. It also offers further insights to the phylogeny and evolution of Dioscorea species. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.


Blomme G.,Bioversity International Uganda Office | Price N.,4 Craddock Drive | Coyne D.,Lambourn And Co. | Lepoint P.C.E.,British Petroleum | And 8 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Banana planting materials, healthy and diseased, are constantly moved between farms, villages, and ecological zones, and across political borders within Africa. Knowledge of the geographical distribution of pests and diseases is important for the implementation and strengthening of quarantine and other phytosanitary measures to prevent further within-country or trans-border spread. This review examines some of these issues. Within sub-Saharan Africa, key indigenous plant-parasitic nematodes attacking banana and plantain are Helicotylenchus multicinctus, Hoplolaimus pararobustus, and various species of Meloidogyne (root-knot nematodes) and Pratylenchus (lesion nematodes). Xanthomonas wilt of banana and enset (caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum), an indigenous African disease, originated in Ethiopia and since 2001, has steadily spread across East and Central Africa but has so far not been found outside the African continent.


Otegbayo B.,Bowen University | Bokanga M.,African Agricultural Technology Foundation | Asiedu R.,Lambourn And Co.
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2011

Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is the second most important root and tuber crop in Africa after cassava. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between physicochemical properties of yam starch (amylose and amylopectin, swelling, solubility and water binding capacity) and the textural quality (stretchability, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, hardness) of pounded yam, a major food product in West Africa. Ya m starch was extracted from six tubers each of Dioscorea alata and D. rotundata and their physicochemical properties were determined by standard methods. Pounded yam was prepared from the same set of tubers. Textural quality evaluation was conducted on the pounded yam samples by sensory texture profiling. Data generated were evaluated by canonical correlation analysis. Results showed that D. rotundata with high swelling power, low amylose and water binding capacity gave pounded yam samples, which were cohesive, stretchable, moderately soft and less sticky compared to D. alata with high amylose, water binding capacity and low swelling power that gave pounded yam samples, which were very soft, unstretchable, sticky and in-cohesive. Canonical analysis showed significant associations (P<0.05) between the physicochemical properties and textural quality of pounded yam samples. These results from D. rotundata were further validated using eighteen other randomly selected yam varieties from this yam species. The reproducibility of physicochemical parameters for the assessment of food textural quality was established. Thus, they can serve as indicators of food textural quality in the selection of yam for food quality by breeders and processors.


Meseka S.,Lambourn And Co. | Fakorede M.,Obafemi Awolowo University | Ajala S.,Lambourn And Co. | Badu-Apraku B.,Lambourn And Co. | Menkir A.,Lambourn And Co.
Journal of Crop Improvement | Year: 2013

Maize (Zea mays L.) landraces in the northern Guinea savanna and Sudan savanna in West and Central Africa appear to have some drought-adaptive traits. This study was initiated to assess the level of improvement in yield potential and other agronomic traits achieved under drought stress (DS) and in multiple locations (ML) after introgression of alleles from maize landraces into an elite maize variety (AK9443-DMRSR) via backcrossing. Six backcross (BC) populations together with recurrent parent (AK9443-DMRSR), a commercial hybrid (Oba Super-II), and an improved variety (TZLCOMP4C1) were evaluated under controlled DS and full irrigation (FI) during the dry seasons of 1999 and 2000, as well as in seven ML trials. No significant differences were observed among genotypes for grain yield and most of the traits measured under DS and FI. Significant differences were recorded among genotypes for grain yield and other agronomic traits measured in ML and across 11 environments. Drought stress reduced grain yields of the BC1F2 populations by 64% and recurrent parent by 71%. In ML trials, at least half of the populations were better than recurrent parent. The top three BC1F2 populations produced more grains than the recurrent parent (258-360 kg/ha) and Oba Super-II (555-657 kg/ha) with introgression of only 25% genome of the landraces. We concluded that backcross procedure was able to transfer a quantitative trait of grain yield of an elite recurrent parent into maize landraces. Additional backcross generations are needed for improved performance of the BC1F2 populations in drought-prone environments. © 2013 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Longford A.,Lambourn And Co. | Klowak G.,GaN Systems
EMPC 2013 - European Microelectronics Packaging Conference: The Winding Roads of Electronics Packaging | Year: 2013

A new generation of Power chips, utilising GaN technologies, are emerging that need to address a number of more fundamental packaging issues that are pushing the package boundaries. To ensure that these new devices meet the need to be 'smaller, faster, cheaper' as driven by the emerging applications in switch mode power supplies (SMPS), motor control, energy conversion and health management systems, the packaging process has adopted novel advanced packaging features, developed primarily for the generic high speed digital Semiconductor 'chip' industry. The device package performance is a significant factor and has an important role in solving system requirement challenges, in protecting the chip from environmental influences, enabling testing and utilizing standard processes to mount it onto a PCB. It is also a means of providing improved lifetime and reliability by enabling additional thermal management, current carrying capability and high voltage isolation. This presentation shows how the devices benefit from new technologies such as 3D and through silicon via that are emerging as 'advanced' packaging and how these have been utilised to meet the thermal and electrical needs of the devices. The novel methods of interconnection, chip bumping and flip chip processes are detailed and the reasons for choices of assembly materials reviewed. © 2013 IMAPS.


Faustina Dufie W.-M.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Oduro I.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Ellis W.O.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Asiedu R.,Lambourn And Co. | Maziya-Dixon B.,Lambourn And Co.
Food and Function | Year: 2013

Yam is the third most important root and tuber crop in the tropics but few species are grown as health food and/or for medicinal purposes. To ascertain the potential health benefits and alternate usage of the species, 20 varieties of Dioscorea alata (water yam) were investigated for their total dietary fiber (TDF), dry matter and amylose contents as well as selected minerals in comparison with Dioscorea rotundata, the preferred species in yam-growing areas. The TDF content varied widely ranging from 4.10 to 11.00%. The dry matter composition ranged from 19.10 to 33.80% and amylose was from 27.90 to 32.30%. In mg kg-1, mineral contents of the varieties were from 10.10-17.60 for Zn, 10550-20100 for K, 83-131 for Na, 260-535 for Ca, and 390-595 for Mg. The results show significant differences (P > 0.05) among the test varieties in all the parameters determined. Generally, the test varieties had lower dry matter but higher amylose contents. TDF contents of the varieties were higher than that reported for brown rice while two varieties had comparable values to whole wheat flour. Identified varieties with higher amylose and TDF contents could be of use to diabetics and other health conscious individuals due to their slower absorption rates. Moreover, the low sodium but high potassium and TDF contents indicate the possible preventive role that D. alata could play in managing related chronic diseases. This shows the potential use of D. alata as a functional food to supplement the fiber and mineral needs of consumers. Thus, there is a need to exploit its use in food fortifications and formulations. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Wireko-Manu F.D.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Ellis W.O.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Oduro I.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Asiedu R.,Lambourn And Co. | Maziya-Dixon B.,Lambourn And Co.
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation | Year: 2014

This study investigated pasting and sensory characteristics of Dioscoreaalata, an underutilized yam species, to ascertain its suitability for amala (a pasty yam product) in comparison with D.rotundata. Pasting was determined by Rapid Visco-Analyser and the amala was prepared from parboiled and fermented yam flour. Using multiple comparison sensory test, the products were assessed on a 9-point scale by a 10-member trained panel. In RVU, the average pasting viscosities for test varieties were: peak 215.7, trough 198.7, breakdown 18.1, final 256.0 and setback 57.3 as against the reference with peak 322.6, trough 187.8, breakdown 134.8, final 359.3 and setback 171.5. Pasting viscosities were significantly (P<0.05) lower for test varieties; however, sensory results showed that D.alata is equally good if not better for amala in terms of texture and color. The better suitability of D.alata for amala could be attributed to parboiling of tubers and browning during drying. Practical Applications: D.alata has low economic value because it is less preferred for major yam products such as pounded yam, fufu, boiled or fried yam. However, the species has good potential for sustainable production and utilization, hence the need to diversify its food uses to enhance food security in producing areas. The results in this study have shown that D.alata has relatively low pasting viscosities as compared to the most preferred species. However, its tubers are equally good for amala, a traditional delicacy in yam producing areas, which is usually made from the preferred species, in terms of textural and sensory properties. To enhance food security and add value to the species, its tubers could be processed to elubo, the flour for amala, which has the potential for longer storage and use during the hunger or off seasons of most tropical crops. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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