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Oikeh S.O.,Africa Rice Center | Houngnandan P.,University Abomey Calavi | Abaidoo R.C.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | Abaidoo R.C.,Lambourn And Co. | And 4 more authors.
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems | Year: 2010

Integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) involving a nitrogen-fixing grain legume, limited chemical fertilizer, and a resilient rice variety may reduce the rate of soil fertility loss and enhance rice productivity in fragile upland rice ecosystems. A 2-year, on-farm study was carried out at Eglimé in the southern Guinea savanna (SGS) and Ouake in the northern Guinea savanna (NGS) of the Republic of Benin to evaluate the contribution of dual-purpose soybean cultivars (Glycine max) to grain yield of upland NERICA® rice receiving low fertilizer N. In 2005, four dual-purpose, promiscuous soybean varieties (cv. TGX 1440-IE, TGX 1448-2E, TGX 1019-2EB, and TGX 1844-18E), a popular soybean variety (cv. Jupiter), and a popular rice (control) were sown in ten farmers' fields. In 2006, resilient upland interspecific rice (NERICA1) and popular rice (IRAT-136) were sown in all plots with only 15 kg N ha-1. Soybean cv. TGX 1440-1E (late-maturing) ranked highest in nodulation, dry matter, shoot- and grain-N accumulation, and N-balance (21 kg ha-1) in NGS, while TGX 1448-2E (medium-maturing) surpassed other varieties in the SGS. Nitrogen fertilizer replacement value for growing cv. TGX 1440-1E in NGS prior to rice ranged from 17 to 45 kg N ha-1 depending on the reference rice. Grain yield of NERICA1 following 1-year rotation with soybean cv. TGX 1440-1E or TGX 1019-2EB was 1.5 Mg ha-1 greater than the yield obtained from farmers' control of 2-year continuous IRAT 136 rice cropping. Results indicate that integrating appropriate dual-purpose soybean in an ISFM package can enhance rice productivity in resource-limited smallholder production systems. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Otegbayo B.,Bowen University | Bokanga M.,African Agricultural Technology Foundation | Asiedu R.,Lambourn And Co.
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2011

Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is the second most important root and tuber crop in Africa after cassava. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between physicochemical properties of yam starch (amylose and amylopectin, swelling, solubility and water binding capacity) and the textural quality (stretchability, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, hardness) of pounded yam, a major food product in West Africa. Ya m starch was extracted from six tubers each of Dioscorea alata and D. rotundata and their physicochemical properties were determined by standard methods. Pounded yam was prepared from the same set of tubers. Textural quality evaluation was conducted on the pounded yam samples by sensory texture profiling. Data generated were evaluated by canonical correlation analysis. Results showed that D. rotundata with high swelling power, low amylose and water binding capacity gave pounded yam samples, which were cohesive, stretchable, moderately soft and less sticky compared to D. alata with high amylose, water binding capacity and low swelling power that gave pounded yam samples, which were very soft, unstretchable, sticky and in-cohesive. Canonical analysis showed significant associations (P<0.05) between the physicochemical properties and textural quality of pounded yam samples. These results from D. rotundata were further validated using eighteen other randomly selected yam varieties from this yam species. The reproducibility of physicochemical parameters for the assessment of food textural quality was established. Thus, they can serve as indicators of food textural quality in the selection of yam for food quality by breeders and processors.

Longford A.,Lambourn And Co. | Klowak G.,GaN Systems
EMPC 2013 - European Microelectronics Packaging Conference: The Winding Roads of Electronics Packaging | Year: 2013

A new generation of Power chips, utilising GaN technologies, are emerging that need to address a number of more fundamental packaging issues that are pushing the package boundaries. To ensure that these new devices meet the need to be 'smaller, faster, cheaper' as driven by the emerging applications in switch mode power supplies (SMPS), motor control, energy conversion and health management systems, the packaging process has adopted novel advanced packaging features, developed primarily for the generic high speed digital Semiconductor 'chip' industry. The device package performance is a significant factor and has an important role in solving system requirement challenges, in protecting the chip from environmental influences, enabling testing and utilizing standard processes to mount it onto a PCB. It is also a means of providing improved lifetime and reliability by enabling additional thermal management, current carrying capability and high voltage isolation. This presentation shows how the devices benefit from new technologies such as 3D and through silicon via that are emerging as 'advanced' packaging and how these have been utilised to meet the thermal and electrical needs of the devices. The novel methods of interconnection, chip bumping and flip chip processes are detailed and the reasons for choices of assembly materials reviewed. © 2013 IMAPS.

Blomme G.,Bioversity International Uganda Office | Price N.,4 Craddock Drive | Coyne D.,Lambourn And Co. | Lepoint P.C.E.,British Petroleum | And 8 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Banana planting materials, healthy and diseased, are constantly moved between farms, villages, and ecological zones, and across political borders within Africa. Knowledge of the geographical distribution of pests and diseases is important for the implementation and strengthening of quarantine and other phytosanitary measures to prevent further within-country or trans-border spread. This review examines some of these issues. Within sub-Saharan Africa, key indigenous plant-parasitic nematodes attacking banana and plantain are Helicotylenchus multicinctus, Hoplolaimus pararobustus, and various species of Meloidogyne (root-knot nematodes) and Pratylenchus (lesion nematodes). Xanthomonas wilt of banana and enset (caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum), an indigenous African disease, originated in Ethiopia and since 2001, has steadily spread across East and Central Africa but has so far not been found outside the African continent.

Tegbaru A.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | Tegbaru A.,Lambourn And Co. | Fitzsimons J.,University of Guelph | Gurung B.,Cultural Anthropologist and Gender Consultant | Odame H.H.,University of Guelph
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2010

This paper explores the managerial and transformative approaches to gender mainstreaming in order to draw a more comprehensive understanding of how institutional and behavioural change processes occur with regard to gender equality. Drawing from the managerial and efficiency path, and planning tools used in implementing a project in Northern Nigeria, Promoting Sustainable Agriculture in Bomo State or PROSAB, and by exploring largely unintended/unforeseen consequences of project actions, the paper argues that change in gender relations should be viewed not as outcome of technology transfer following a simple input-output model conceptualised largely in linear terms, but rather as a complex social phenomenon based on people's interests, motivations, relationships, and innovative actions that are embedded in their historical and cultural situations. It suggests that the managerial and efficiency approaches are insufficient to encourage change in gender relations. Drawing from the case of PROSAB, the paper underlines the importance of a transformative approach that understands change processes in gender relations and success in women empowerment, which are influenced by the interplay of multiple factors that are not project controlled.

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