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Parbatipur, Bangladesh

Ralston M.E.,Naval Hospital | Ralston M.E.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Day L.T.,LAMB Hospital | Slusher T.M.,University of Minnesota | And 2 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2013

Nearly all global mortality in children younger than 5 years (99%) occurs in developing countries. The leading causes of mortality in children younger than 5 years worldwide, pneumonia and diarrhoeal illness, account for 1•396 and 0•801 million annual deaths, respectively. Although important advances in prevention are being made, advanced life support management in children in developing countries is often incomplete because of limited resources. Existing advanced life support management guidelines for children in limited-resource settings are mainly empirical, rather than evidence-based, written for the hospital setting, not standardised with a systematic approach to patient assessment and categorisation of illness, and taught in current paediatric advanced life support training courses from the perspective of full-resource settings. In this Review, we focus on extension of higher quality emergency and critical care services to children in developing countries. When integrated into existing primary care programmes, simple inexpensive advanced life support management can improve child survival worldwide. Source


Lawn J.E.,Saving Newborn Lives | Lawn J.E.,Health Systems Research Unit | Lawn J.E.,Institute of Child Health | Blencowe H.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 6 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2011

Despite increasing attention and investment for maternal, neonatal, and child health, stillbirths remain invisible - not counted in the Millennium Development Goals, nor tracked by the UN, nor in the Global Burden of Disease metrics. At least 2·65 million stillbirths (uncertainty range 2·08 million to 3·79 million) were estimated worldwide in 2008 (≥1000 g birthweight or ≥28 weeks of gestation). 98 of stillbirths occur in low-income and middle-income countries, and numbers vary from 2·0 per 1000 total births in Finland to more than 40 per 1000 total births in Nigeria and Pakistan. Worldwide, 67 of stillbirths occur in rural families, 55 in rural sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia, where skilled birth attendance and caesarean sections are much lower than that for urban births. In total, an estimated 1·19 million (range 0·82 million to 1·97 million) intrapartum stillbirths occur yearly. Most intrapartum stillbirths are associated with obstetric emergencies, whereas antepartum stillbirths are associated with maternal infections and fetal growth restriction. National estimates of causes of stillbirths are scarce, and multiple (>35) classification systems impede international comparison. Immediate data improvements are feasible through household surveys and facility audit, and improvements in vital registration, including specific perinatal certificates and revised International Classification of Disease codes, are needed. A simple, programme-relevant stillbirth classification that can be used with verbal autopsy would provide a basis for comparable national estimates. A new focus on all deaths around the time of birth is crucial to inform programmatic investment. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All Rights Reserved. Source


Ruminjo J.K.,EngenderHealth | Frajzyngier V.,EngenderHealth | Bashir Abdullahi M.,Faridat Yakubu Hospital | Asiimwe F.,Kagando Hospital | And 11 more authors.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2014

Background: Treatment and care for female genital fistula have become increasingly available over the last decade in countries across Africa and South Asia. Before the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) and partners published a global fistula training manual in 2011 there was no internationally recognized, standardized training curriculum, including perioperative care. The community of fistula care practitioners and advocates lacks data about the prevalence of various perioperative clinical procedures and practices and their potential programmatic implications are lacking.Methods: Data presented here are from a prospective cohort study conducted between September 2007 and September 2010 at 11 fistula repair facilities supported by Fistula Care in five countries. Clinical procedures and practices used in the routine perioperative management of over 1300 women are described.Results: More than two dozen clinical procedures and practices were tabulated. Some of them were commonly used at all sites (e.g., vaginal route of repair, 95.3% of cases); others were rare (e.g., flaps/grafts, 3.4%) or varied widely depending on site (e.g. for women with urinary fistula, the inter-quartile range for median duration of post-repair bladder catheterization was 14 to 29 days).Conclusions: These findings show a wide range of clinical procedures and practices with different program implications for safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness. The variability indicates the need for further research so as to strengthen the evidence base for fistula treatment in developing countries. © 2014 Ruminjo et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Frajzyngier V.,EngenderHealth | Ruminjo J.,EngenderHealth | Asiimwe F.,Kagando Mission Hospital | Barry T.H.,Prefectoral Hospital of Kissidougou | And 9 more authors.
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology | Year: 2012

Objective The abdominal route of genitourinary fistula repair may be associated with longer term hospitalisation, hospital-associated infection and increased resource requirements. We examined: (1) the factors influencing the route of repair; (2) the influence of the route of repair on fistula closure 3 months following surgery; and (3) whether the influence of the route of repair on repair outcome varied by whether or not women met the published indications for abdominal repair. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Eleven health facilities in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Population The 1274 women with genitourinary fistula presenting for surgical repair services. Methods Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were generated using log-binomial and Poisson (log-link) regression. Multivariable regression and propensity score matching were employed to adjust for confounding. Main outcome measures Abdominal route of repair and fistula closure at 3 months following fistula repair surgery. Results Published indications for abdominal route of repair (extensive scarring or tissue loss, genital infibulation, ureteric involvement, trigonal, supratrigonal, vesico-uterine or intracervical location or other abdominal pathology) predicted the abdominal route [adjusted risk ratio (ARR), 15.56; 95% CI, 2.12-114.00]. A vaginal route of repair was associated with increased risk of failed closure (ARR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.05-1.88); stratified analyses suggested elevated risk among women meeting indications for the abdominal route. Conclusions Additional studies powered to test effect modification hypotheses are warranted to confirm whether the abdominal route of repair is beneficial for certain women. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Source


Landry E.,EngenderHealth | Frajzyngier V.,EngenderHealth | Frajzyngier V.,Columbia University | Ruminjo J.,EngenderHealth | And 14 more authors.
Global Public Health | Year: 2013

This article presents data from 1354 women from five countries who participated in a prospective cohort study conducted between 2007 and 2010. Women undergoing surgery for fistula repair were interviewed at the time of admission, discharge, and at a 3-month follow-up visit. While women's experiences differed across countries, a similar picture emerges across countries: women married young, most were married at the time of admission, had little education, and for many, the fistula occurred after the first pregnancy. Median age at the time of fistula occurrence was 20.0 years (interquartile range 17.3-26.8). Half of the women attended some antenatal care (ANC); among those who attended ANC, less than 50% recalled being told about signs of pregnancy complications. At follow-up, most women (even those who were not dry) reported improvements in many aspects of social life, however, reported improvements varied by repair outcome. Prevention and treatment programmes need to recognise the supportive role that husbands, partners, and families play as women prepare for safe delivery. Effective treatment and support programmes are needed for women who remain incontinent after surgery. © 2013 © 2013 EngenderHealth. Published by Routledge. Source

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