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Rome, Italy

Calvani M.,Operative Complex Unit of Pediatrics | Arasi S.,Messina University | Bianchi A.,Operative Complex Unit of Pediatrics and Neonatal Patology | Caimmi D.,Montpellier University | And 6 more authors.
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology | Year: 2015

The diagnosis of IgE-mediated egg allergy lies both on a compatible clinical history and on the results of skin prick tests (SPTs) and IgEs levels. Both tests have good sensitivity but low specificity. For this reason, oral food challenge (OFC) is the ultimate gold standard for the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature in order to identify, analyze, and synthesize the predictive value of SPT and specific IgEs both to egg white and to main egg allergens and to review the cutoffs suggested in the literature. A total of 37 articles were included in this systematic review. Studies were grouped according to the degree of cooking of the egg used for OFC, age, and type of allergen used to perform the allergy workup. In children <2 years, raw egg allergy seems very likely when SPTs with egg white extract are ≥4 mm or specific IgEs are ≥1.7 kUA/l. In children ≥2 years, OFC could be avoided when SPTs with egg white extract are ≥10 mm or prick by prick with egg white is ≥14 mm or specific IgE is ≥7.3 kUA/l. Likewise, heated egg allergy can be diagnosed if SPTs with egg white extract are >5 and >11 mm in children <2 and ≥2 years, respectively. Further and better-designed studies are needed to determine the remaining diagnostic cutoff of specific IgE and SPT for heated and baked egg allergy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Eleni C.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Regioni Lazio e Toscana | Panetta V.,Laltrastatistica srl | Scholl F.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Regioni Lazio e Toscana | Scaramozzino P.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Regioni Lazio e Toscana
Veterinaria Italiana | Year: 2014

Dogs share with humans several zoonotic diseases as well as some important determinants of degenerative syndromes and tumours. For this reason, systematic surveillance on small animal disease carried out through the collection and analysis of necropsy records could be helpful to public health. To describe the causes of death in dogs from the province of Rome (Italy) submitted to the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Lazio e della Toscana for necropsy during 2003-2007, a retrospective study was conducted on diagnostic data of 870 dogs. The final diagnosis was established by anatomo-histopathological examinations and, when needed, by ancillary laboratory tests. The most common causes of death were 'infectious disease' (23%) and 'poisoning' (17%). In 5% of the cases, the cause remained undetermined. The frequency of 'poisoning' was higher (39%) in stray dogs, while 'infectious disease' was more frequent (49%) in dogs from breeding farms. Parvovirosis was the most frequent infectious disease (33%) while anticoagulants accounted for 30% of the cases involving toxicity. Death by neoplastic lesions was quite infrequent (7%). Findings from this study provide veterinarians with an overview of the causes of death in dogs and it could provide public health authorities with new data about both novel and re-emerging threats. Source

Battisti S.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Regioni Lazio e Toscana | Caminiti A.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Regioni Lazio e Toscana | Ciotoli G.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Ciotoli G.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 5 more authors.
Geospatial Health | Year: 2013

In May 2005, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) was found in a sample of bovine bulk milk from a farm in the Sacco River valley (Latium region, central Italy). The primary source of contamination was suspected to be industrial discharge into the environment with the Sacco River as the main mean of dispersion. Since then, a surveillance programme on bulk milk of the local farms was carried out by the veterinary services. In order to estimate the spatial probability of β-HCH contamination of milk produced in the Sacco River valley and draw probability maps of contamination, probability maps of β-HCH values in milk were estimated by indicator kriging (IK), a geo-statistical estimator, and traditional logistic regression (LR) combined with a geographical information systems approach. The former technique produces a spatial view of probabilities above a specific threshold at non-sampled locations on the basis of observed values in the area, while LR gives the probabilities in specific locations on the basis of certain environmental predictors, namely the distance from the river, the distance from the pollution site, the elevation above the river level and the intrinsic vulnerability of hydro-geological formations. Based on the β-HCH data from 2005 in the Sacco River valley, the two techniques resulted in similar maps of high risk of milk contamination. However, unlike the IK method, the LR model was capable of estimating coefficients that could be used in case of future pollution episodes. The approach presented produces probability maps and define high-risk areas already in the early stages of an emergency before sampling operations have been carried out. Source

Calvani M.,S Camillo Forlanini Hospital | Berti I.,Institute for Maternal and Child Health | Fiocchi A.,University of Milan | Giorgio V.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | And 3 more authors.
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology | Year: 2012

Background: The diagnostic gold standard of food allergy is the oral food challenge (OFC). Data on severe reactions and drug use during OFC are scarce. Our aims were (i) to investigate the prevalence and spectrum of reactions' severity during OFC and to assess drug use and epinephrine use in anaphylaxis due to OFC; (ii) to investigate the predictive value of the skin prick test wheal size for the outcome of OFCs. Methods: A retrospective charts review of children undergoing OFC at three Allergy Centres between January 2007 and December 2008 was performed. Results: A total of 544 OFCs were analysed. Most frequently involved foods were egg, milk and wheat. 254/526 (48.3%) were positive. 167 (65.7%) were defined mild reactions, 81 (31.9%) multiorgan reactions and 6 (2.4%) anaphylaxis. No patients had cardiovascular symptoms. Data on treatments were available in 98.8% OFCs. In half of them antihistamines were used vs. 10% cases in which steroids were preferred. Six children (2.4%) were treated with Epinephrine inhalation, 5 (2%) with beta-2 inhalation, 8 (3.1%) with steroid inhalation. One child was treated with IM Epinephrine + IV fluids. Skin prick tests predictive cut-off were 9 mm for albumen, 7 for yolk, 13 for fresh albumen, 10 for α-lactalbumin, seven for casein, eight for β-lactoglobulin, 20 for cow's milk and 10 for fresh cow's milk. Conclusion: OFCs performed in controlled settings by expert Allergists are safe. Consideration needs to be given as to whether the Anaphylaxis' Guideline need to be modified when applied in treating patients undergoing OFC. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

De Vita M.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Panetta V.,Laltrastatistica srl | Prattico F.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Foti C.,University of Rome Tor Vergata
Medicina dello Sport | Year: 2015

Aim. The aim of this present study was to investigate the prevalence of gymnastics' injuries related with gear training and level of Artistic Gymnastic athletes (AGA). Methods. The sample included 81 Artistic Gymnastic Athletes (AGA) of which 26 high performance athletes (HPA) and 55 amateurs athletes (AA). Data were obtained by questionnaire designed by authors themselves Results. The 46% of AGA got injuries, 24 HPAGA and 13 AAGA (P<0.001). The median age of athletes who had injuries is highest than athletes who didn't have injuries (P=0.001). HPAGA are aged significantly greater than amateur ones (P<0.001). Joint apparatus is the most injured with 65% of sample, and the injury is mainly distributed in lower limbs (68%). The knees are most commonly trauma affected with 24%, while the most repeated injuries are sprains with 38%. Acute injuries are the most common. The biggest percentage of injury in relation with gear training is floor gymnastics (44%) and vault (26%). Conclusion. This study confirms data in literature, important for improvement and development of new strategies in athlete prevention. It could be considered instrumental evaluation to test monthly athletes' skill in order to investigate the cause of performance decline. Source

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