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Lucio O.,University of ValenciaValencia | Pardo I.,University of ValenciaValencia | Heras J.M.,Lallemand Bio | Krieger-Weber S.,Lallemand | Ferrer S.,University of ValenciaValencia
Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research | Year: 2017

Background and Aims: Oenococcus oeni is the lactic acid bacteria species that best adapts to harsh wine conditions. This species is currently the main component of the malolactic starter cultures used in winemaking. Other species of lactic acid bacteria, however, such as Lactobacillus, can also conduct the malolactic fermentation, especially in low acidity wines. This study aimed to identify suitable Lactobacillus strains and inoculation methods to undertake the malolactic fermentation in wines with pH > 3.5. Methods and Results: Six Lactobacillus strains of species L. mali (E4634), L. paracasei (E4539, E4541), L. plantarum (E4538, E4608) and L. satsumensis (E4555) were selected for their good growth performance and high malolactic activity in grape must, although these characteristics differed among them. Freeze-dried starter cultures were obtained for strains E4538, E4608, E4555 and E4634. These starter cultures showed a high rate of malic acid consumption in grape must. Inoculation of the Lactobacillus strains in grape must, prior to fermentative yeasts, was selected as the best inoculation strategy to promote the malolactic fermentation. Conclusions: Inoculation of the starter cultures of the selected Lactobacillus strains before yeast inoculation in grape must effectively allows malolactic fermentation in wines. Significance of the Study: Inoculation of Lactobacillus strains in grape must, prior to fermentative yeasts, is an effective alternative to O. oeni to undertake malolactic fermentation in wines of pH > 3.5. © 2017 Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology Inc.


Vestner J.,CNRS Oenologie Research Unit | Vestner J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Vestner J.,Hochschule Geisenheim University | de Revel G.,CNRS Oenologie Research Unit | And 5 more authors.
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2016

In contrast to targeted analysis of volatile compounds, non-targeted approaches take information of known and unknown compounds into account, are inherently more comprehensive and give a more holistic representation of the sample composition. Although several non-targeted approaches have been developed, there's still a demand for automated data processing tools, especially for complex multi-way data such as chromatographic data obtained from multichannel detectors. This work was therefore aimed at developing a data processing procedure for gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data obtained from non-targeted analysis of volatile compounds. The developed approach uses basic matrix manipulation of segmented GC-MS chromatograms and PARAFAC multi-way modelling. The approach takes retention time shifts and peak shape deformations between samples into account and can be done with the freely available N-way toolbox for MATLAB. A demonstration of the new fingerprinting approach is presented using an artificial GC-MS data set and an experimental full-scan GC-MS data set obtained for a set of experimental wines. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


du Toit M.,Stellenbosch University | Engelbrecht L.,Stellenbosch University | Lerm E.,Stellenbosch University | Krieger-Weber S.,Lallemand
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2011

Malolactic fermentation (MLF) is a secondary wine fermentation conducted by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). This fermentation is important in winemaking as it deacidifies the wine, it contributes to microbial stability and lastly it contributes to wine aroma through the production of metabolites. Oenococcus oeni is the main species used in commercially available starter culture currently, but research has indicated that different Lactobacillus species also partake in MLF and this has shifted the focus in the MLF field to evaluate the potential of lactobacilli as starter cultures for the future. There are 17 different species of Lactobacillus associated with winemaking either being associated with the grapes/beginning of alcoholic fermentation or the MLF and wine. Lactobacillus associated with wine is mainly facultative or obligatory heterofermentative and can withstand the harsh wine conditions such as high ethanol levels, low pH and temperatures and sulphur dioxide. Wine lactobacilli contain the malolactic enzyme encoding gene, but sequence homology shows that it clusters separate from O. oeni. Lactobacillus also possesses more enzyme encoding genes compared to O. oeni, important for the production of wine aroma compounds such as glycosidase, protease, esterase, phenolic acid decarboxylase and citrate lyase. Another characteristic associated with wine lactobacilli is the production of bacteriocins, especially plantaricins which would enable them to combat spoilage LAB. All these characteristics, together with their ability to conduct MLF just as efficiently as O. oeni, make them suitable for a new generation of MLF starter cultures. © 2010 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.


Knoll C.,Wiesbaden University of Applied Sciences | Knoll C.,Geisenheim Research Center | Fritsch S.,Geisenheim Research Center | Schnell S.,Justus Liebig University | And 6 more authors.
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

During malolactic fermentation (MLF), lactic acid bacteria influence wine aroma and flavour by the production of volatile metabolites and the modification of aroma compounds derived from grapes and yeasts. The present study investigated the impact of different MLF inoculation strategies with two different Oenococcus oeni strains on cool climate Riesling wines and the volatile wine aroma profile. Four different timings were chosen for inoculation with bacteria to conduct MLF in a Riesling must/wine with a high acidity (pH 2. 9-3. 1). Treatments with simultaneous inoculation showed a reduced total fermentation time (alcoholic and malolactic) compared to the sequential inoculations. No negative impact of simultaneous alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on fermentation success and on the final wine volatile aroma composition was observed. Compared to sequential inoculation, wines with co-inoculation tended to have higher concentrations of ethyl and acetate esters, including acetic acid phenylethylester, acetic acid 3-methylbutylester, butyric acid ethylester, lactic acid ethylester and succinic acid diethylester. Results of this study provide some alternatives to diversify the number of wine styles by safely conducting MLF in low-pH, cool-climate white musts with potential high alcohol content. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


PubMed | Stellenbosch University, Hochschule Geisenheim University, CNRS Oenologie Research Unit and Lallemand
Type: | Journal: Analytica chimica acta | Year: 2016

In contrast to targeted analysis of volatile compounds, non-targeted approaches take information of known and unknown compounds into account, are inherently more comprehensive and give a more holistic representation of the sample composition. Although several non-targeted approaches have been developed, theres still a demand for automated data processing tools, especially for complex multi-way data such as chromatographic data obtained from multichannel detectors. This work was therefore aimed at developing a data processing procedure for gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data obtained from non-targeted analysis of volatile compounds. The developed approach uses basic matrix manipulation of segmented GC-MS chromatograms and PARAFAC multi-way modelling. The approach takes retention time shifts and peak shape deformations between samples into account and can be done with the freely available N-way toolbox for MATLAB. A demonstration of the new fingerprinting approach is presented using an artificial GC-MS data set and an experimental full-scan GC-MS data set obtained for a set of experimental wines.


da Silva M.S.J.,State University of Maringá | Jobim C.C.,State University of Maringá | Poppi E.C.,Lallemand | Tres T.T.,State University of Maringá | Osmari M.P.,State University of Maringá
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2015

The objective of this study was to evaluate the production practices and use of corn silage in dairy farms in Southern Brazil, and to evaluate their impact on the nutritional quality and occurrence of mycotoxins. The data were collected by application of questionnaires among the producers, and by analysis of silage samples. The variables were subjected to factorial analysis of data reduction through the principal components method, thus obtaining 84.12% of the variance associated with the location, corn hybrid, crop production management, and inoculant used, characterizing the farms into four distinct groups. In farms from Paraná, the silage production technologies were more associated with implantation and crop management processes, and investment in equipment related to ensilage/silo feed-out was less frequent. Farms of Rio Grande do Sul showed high adoption of outsourced services, self-propelled machines, bunker silos, double-sided plastic film, and inoculant to control aerobic deterioration, and the silages showed higher levels of propionic acid (7.95 g/kg DM), and lower concentrations of aflatoxins (7.7 ppb) and total mycotoxins (26.58 ppb). The farms evaluated in Southern Brazil have good production efficiency and corn silages with excellent quality, regardless of their production characteristics. © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.


Chasseriaud L.,Institut Universitaire de France | Krieger-Weber S.,Lallemand | Deleris-Bou M.,Lallemand SAS | Sieczkowski N.,Lallemand SAS | And 4 more authors.
Food Microbiology | Year: 2015

Lot of articles report on the impact of polyphenols on wine lactic acid bacteria, but it is clear that the results still remain confusing, because the system is complicated both in term of chemical composition and of diversity of strains. In addition, red wines polyphenols are multiple, complex and reactive molecules. Moreover, the final composition of wine varies according to grape variety and to extraction during winemaking. Therefore it is nearly impossible to deduce their effects on bacteria from experiments in oversimplified conditions. In the present work, effect of tannins preparations, currently considered as possible technological adjuvants, was assessed on growth and malolactic fermentation for two malolactic starters. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory medium and in a white wine. Likewise, impact of total polyphenolic extracts obtained from different grape variety red wines was evaluated in the white wine as culture medium. As expected growth and activity of both strains were affected whatever the additions. Results suggest some interpretations to the observed impacts on bacterial populations. Influence of tannins should be, at least partly, due to redox potential change. Results on wine extracts show the need for investigating the bacterial metabolism of some galloylated molecules. Indeed, they should play on bacterial physiology and probably affect the sensory qualities of wines. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Lallemand SAS, Institut Universitaire de France and Lallemand
Type: | Journal: Food microbiology | Year: 2015

Lot of articles report on the impact of polyphenols on wine lactic acid bacteria, but it is clear that the results still remain confusing, because the system is complicated both in term of chemical composition and of diversity of strains. In addition, red wines polyphenols are multiple, complex and reactive molecules. Moreover, the final composition of wine varies according to grape variety and to extraction during winemaking. Therefore it is nearly impossible to deduce their effects on bacteria from experiments in oversimplified conditions. In the present work, effect of tannins preparations, currently considered as possible technological adjuvants, was assessed on growth and malolactic fermentation for two malolactic starters. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory medium and in a white wine. Likewise, impact of total polyphenolic extracts obtained from different grape variety red wines was evaluated in the white wine as culture medium. As expected growth and activity of both strains were affected whatever the additions. Results suggest some interpretations to the observed impacts on bacterial populations. Influence of tannins should be, at least partly, due to redox potential change. Results on wine extracts show the need for investigating the bacterial metabolism of some galloylated molecules. Indeed, they should play on bacterial physiology and probably affect the sensory qualities of wines.


Lucio O.,University of Valencia | Pardo I.,University of Valencia | Krieger-Weber S.,Lallemand | Heras J.M.,Lallemand Bio S.L. | Ferrer S.,University of Valencia
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Because of global warming, wines are obtained nowadays with high pH values and low acidity. This results in wines with disturbed flavor and increased susceptibility of microbial spoilage. The aim of this work was the selection of Lactobacillus strains with ability to induce biological acidification in low acidity grape musts to obtain more acidic wines. A screening of Lactobacillus strains was carried out using several selection criteria. Lactobacillus strains that grew in must, carried out the malolactic fermentation, acidified grape must, synthesized lactic acid from sugars, and showed high resistance to lysozyme and sulfur dioxide were selected. Selected strains were characterized based on their metabolism in grape must and their ability to synthesize biogenic amines. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Azzolini M.,Centro per la Sperimentazione in Vitivinicoltura | Tosi E.,Centro per la Sperimentazione in Vitivinicoltura | Vagnoli P.,Lallemand Succursale Italiana | Krieger S.,Lallemand | Zapparoli G.,University of Verona
Italian Journal of Food Science | Year: 2010

The practice of inoculating selected bacteria before alcoholic fermentation (AF) (co-inoculation) to induce malolactic fermentation (MLF) was used to produce red table wines from several grape varieties. In most of the microvinification trials, MLF was completed before or within one week after de-vatting. The acetic acid content remained within an acceptable level (<0.60 g/L). In an industrial vinification (200 hL), MLF induced by co-inoculation was completed before de-vatting, while in the wines inoculated after AF, the total malic acid degradation was obtained 33 days later. The potential risk of increasing the volatile acidity was also evaluated by inducing MLF in partially fermented wines. The co-inoculation practice was compatible with the production of red wines. The decrease in vinification time with respect to traditional MLF management could offer a significant advantage for industrial wineries. © 2010.

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