Gravanis I.,European Medicines Agency |
Sancho Lopez A.,Hospital Universitario Puerta Of Hierro |
Hemmings R.J.,Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency |
Camarero Jimenez J.,Agencia Espanola de Medicamentos y Productos Sanitarios |
And 7 more authors.
Oncologist | Year: 2013
On September 5, 2011, abiraterone was approved in the European Union in combination with prednisone or prednisolone for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in adult men whose disease has progressed on or after a docetaxel-based chemotherapy regimen. On December 18, 2012, the therapeutic indication was extended to include the use of abiraterone in combination with prednisone or prednisolone for the treatment of metastatic CRPC in adult men who are asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic after failure of androgen deprivation therapy in whom chemotherapy is not yet clinically indicated. Abiraterone is a selective, irreversible inhibitor of cytochrome P450 17α, an enzyme that is key in the production of androgens. Inhibition of androgen biosynthesis deprives prostate cancer cells from important signals for growth, even in cases of resistance to castration. At the time of European Union approval and in a phase III trial in CRPC patients who had failed at least one docetaxel-based chemotherapy regimen, median overall survival for patients treated with abiraterone was 14.8 months versus 10.9 months for those receiving placebo (hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval 0.54 - 0.77; p<.0001). In a subsequent phase III trial in a similar but chemotherapy-naïve patient population, median radiographic progression-free survival was 16.5 months for patients in the abiraterone treatment arm versus 8.3 months for patients in the placebo arm (hazard ratio, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.62; p<.0001). Abiraterone was most commonly associated with adverse reactions resulting from increased or excessive mineralocorticoid activity. These were generally manageable with basic medical interventions. The most common side effects (affecting more than 10% of patients) were urinary tract infection, hypokalemia, hypertension, and peripheral edema. © AlphaMed Press 2013.
van Duijkeren E.,University Utrecht |
Catry B.,Scientific Institute of Public Health |
Greko C.,National Veterinary Institute |
Moreno M.A.,Complutense University of Madrid |
And 7 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2011
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an important opportunistic pathogen of companion animals, especially dogs. Since 2006 there has been a significant emergence of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) mainly due to clonal spread. This article reviews research on MRSP with a focus on occurrence, methods used for identification, risk factors for colonization and infection, zoonotic potential and control options. Potential areas for future research are also discussed. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
Tsigkos S.,European Medicines Agency |
Mariz S.,European Medicines Agency |
Llinares J.,European Medicines Agency |
Fregonese L.,European Medicines Agency |
And 4 more authors.
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases | Year: 2014
In the European Union, sponsors have the responsibility to demonstrate the "intention to diagnose, prevent or treat" a serious and rare condition before the Committee of Orphan Medicinal Products (COMP), for a medicinal product to meet the criteria for Orphan Designation. This requirement is commonly referred to as "medical plausibility" and the justification of this intention is assessed on the merits of each application by the COMP, which deliberates over the scientific evaluation of the evidence submitted. The scientific assessment of the applications for orphan designation by the Committee is based on the review of non-clinical (such as in vitro and in vivo) and/or clinical data submitted by the sponsor. Several challenges regarding the evidence provided emerge when the sponsor is applying for a designation at an early stage of development. Herein we discuss specific examples from the experience of the COMP, in order to elaborate on the type and level of evidence generally considered necessary for the purpose of justification of the intention to treat an orphan condition. Importantly, it is pointed out that bridging of data from other products, irrespectively of how comparable they may be, or from settings not directly associated with the condition as applied for designation, is by and large not a successful exercise and may only be exceptionally considered. It is further exemplified that, as reflected in the updated 'Guideline on the format and context of the applications for designation' and the guidance document 'Recommendation on elements required to support the medical plausibility and the assumption of significant benefit for an orphan designation' available on the EMA website, the sponsor should provide data with the specific product as applied for in specific models of the condition or in patients affected by the same condition subject of each application. © 2014 Tsigkos et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Pignatti F.,European Medicines Agency EMA |
Jonsson B.,Lakemedelsverket |
Blumenthal G.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration |
Justice R.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Molecular Oncology | Year: 2015
Drug licensing and approval decisions involve the balancing of benefits against the risks (harms) in the presence of uncertainty. Typically, the benefits are estimated from primary efficacy endpoints from confirmatory (phase III) clinical trials although exceptions where promising early data from single-arm studies have led to accelerated approvals are not uncommon, particularly for cancer drugs.The challenge for regulators is to balance early evidence of efficacy that might support approval versus the need to establish clinical benefit based on conclusive evidence. Targeted agents offer the promise that knowledge about the mechanism of the disease will help identify patients with tumors likely to respond, resulting in higher efficacy and less toxicity, and earlier regulatory decisions based on convincing evidence of clinical benefit.In this paper, we describe methods and examples of benefit-risk assessment of targeted drugs, recent initiatives from EMA and FDA on improving communication about benefits and risks, and discuss future steps. © 2014.
PubMed | Eli Lilly and Company, Center for Innovation in Regulatory Science, University of Stuttgart, Janssen Pharmaceutical and 10 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics | Year: 2015
Structured frameworks for benefit-risk analysis in drug licensing decisions are being implemented across a number of regulatory agencies worldwide. The aim of these frameworks is to aid the analysis and communication of the benefit-risk assessment throughout the development, evaluation, and supervision of medicines. In this review, authors from regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies, and academia share their views on the different frameworks and discuss future directions.
Catry B.,Scientific Institute of Public Health |
Van Duijkeren E.,University Utrecht |
Pomba M.C.,University of Lisbon |
Greko C.,National Veterinary Institute |
And 9 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2010
The scope of this reflection paper was to review the latest research on the risk of MRSA infection and colonization in animals. Attention focused on occurrence, risk factors for colonization and infection, and human contact hazard for livestock, horses, and companion animals. Whereas the clonal relationship between MRSA strains of CC398 is straightforward in livestock this is less obvious in horses. Small companion animals typically share MRSA strains that seem to exchange with a human reservoir. Management and therapeutic options have been suggested for livestock, horses, companion animals, as well as instructions on safety measures for persons in contact with animals. Conclusions were drawn with emphasis on future research activities, especially to confirm the apparent evolution of the organism and to demonstrate efficiency of control strategies. © Cambridge University Press 2010.
Van Duijkeren E.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment |
Greko C.,National Veterinary Institute |
Pringle M.,National Veterinary Institute |
Baptiste K.E.,Danish Health and Medicines Authority |
And 12 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2014
Pleuromutilins (tiamulin and valnemulin) are antimicrobial agents that are used mainly in veterinary medicine, especially for swine and to a lesser extent for poultry and rabbits. In pigs, tiamulin and valnemulin are used to treat swine dysentery, spirochaete-associated diarrhoea, porcine proliferative enteropathy, enzootic pneumonia and other infections where Mycoplasma is involved. There are concerns about the reported increases in the MICs of tiamulin and valnemulin for porcine Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates from different European countries, as only a limited number of antimicrobials are available for the treatment of swine dysentery where resistance to these antimicrobials is already common and widespread. The loss of pleuromutilins as effective tools to treat swine dysentery because of further increases in resistance or as a consequence of restrictions would present a considerable threat to pig health, welfare and productivity. In humans, only one product containing pleuromutilins (retapamulin) is authorized currently for topical use; however, products for oral and intravenous administration to humans with serious multidrug-resistant skin infections and respiratory infections, including those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are being developed. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the usage of pleuromutilins, resistance development and the potential impact of this resistance on animal and human health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
PubMed | Complutense University of Madrid, Spanish Agency of Medicines and Medical Devices, Scientific Institute of Public Health WIV ISP, National Institute for Public Health RIVM and 13 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of antimicrobial agents | Year: 2015
Since its introduction in the 1950s, colistin has been used mainly as a topical treatment in human medicine owing to its toxicity when given systemically. Sixty years later, colistin is being used as a last-resort drug to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterobacteriaceae (e.g., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae), for which mortality can be high. In veterinary medicine, colistin has been used for decades for the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. Colistin has been administered frequently as a group treatment for animal gastrointestinal infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria within intensive husbandry systems. Given the ever-growing need to retain the efficacy of antimicrobials used to treat MDR infections in humans, the use of colistin in veterinary medicine is being re-evaluated. Despite extensive use in veterinary medicine, there is limited evidence for the development of resistance to colistin and no evidence has been found for the transmission of resistance in bacteria that have been spread from animals to humans. Since surveillance for colistin resistance in animals is limited and the potential for such transmission exists, there is a clear need to reinforce systematic monitoring of bacteria from food-producing animals for resistance to colistin (polymyxins). Furthermore, colistin should only be used for treatment of clinically affected animals and no longer for prophylaxis of diseases, in line with current principles of responsible use of antibiotics.
PubMed | National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Royal Veterinary College University of London, Agence Nationale de Securite Sanitaire ANSES, Public Health England and 11 more.
Type: | Journal: The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy | Year: 2016
Antimicrobials are important tools for the therapy of infectious bacterial diseases in companion animals. Loss of efficacy of antimicrobial substances can seriously compromise animal health and welfare. A need for the development of new antimicrobials for the therapy of multiresistant infections, particularly those caused by Gram-negative bacteria, has been acknowledged in human medicine and a future corresponding need in veterinary medicine is expected. A unique aspect related to antimicrobial resistance and risk of resistance transfer in companion animals is their close contact with humans. This creates opportunities for interspecies transmission of resistant bacteria. Yet, the current knowledge of this field is limited and no risk assessment is performed when approving new veterinary antimicrobials. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the use and indications for antimicrobials in companion animals, drug-resistant bacteria of concern among companion animals, risk factors for colonization of companion animals with resistant bacteria and transmission of antimicrobial resistance (bacteria and/or resistance determinants) between animals and humans. The major antimicrobial resistance microbiological hazards originating from companion animals that directly or indirectly may cause adverse health effects in humans are MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, VRE, ESBL- or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Gram-negative bacteria. In the face of the previously recognized microbiological hazards, a risk assessment tool could be applied in applications for marketing authorization for medicinal products for companion animals. This would allow the approval of new veterinary medicinal antimicrobials for which risk levels are estimated as acceptable for public health.
PubMed | European Medicines Agency and Lakemedelsverket
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics | Year: 2015
Antimicrobials are essential medicines for the treatment of many microbial infections in humans and animals. Only a small number of antimicrobial agents with new mechanisms of action have been authorized in recent years for use in either humans or animals. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) arising from the use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine is a concern for public health due to the detection of increasing levels of resistance in foodborne zoonotic bacteria, particularly gram-negative bacteria, and due to the detection of determinants of resistance such as Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in bacteria from animals and in foodstuffs of animal origin. The importance and the extent of the emergence and spread of AMR from animals to humans has yet to be quantified. Likewise, the relative contribution that the use of antimicrobial agents in animals makes to the overall risk to human from AMR is currently a subject of debate that can only be resolved through further research. Nevertheless, risk managers have agreed that the impact on public health of the use of antimicrobials in animals should be minimized as far as possible and a variety of measures have been introduced by different authorities in the EU to achieve this objective. This article reviews a range of measures that have been implemented within European countries to reduce the occurrence and the risk of transmission of AMR to humans following the use of antimicrobial agents in animals and briefly describes some of the alternatives to the use of antimicrobial agents that are being developed.