Nyahururu, Kenya

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Ngure V.,Laikipia University | Davies T.,Mangosuthu University of Technology | Kinuthia G.,Daystar University | Sitati N.,African Wildlife Foundation | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Geochemical Exploration | Year: 2014

Second only to the agricultural industry, mining is often considered to be the largest source of pollution in most mineral-rich countries. Mine wastes and tailings commonly generate large concentrations of effluents containing high levels of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) which migrate into various compartments of the ecosystem with obvious undesirable health consequences. In this study, the concentrations of As Cd, Hg and Pb were determined on samples of soil, stream water and fish (Rastrineobola argentea) collected from the Migori Gold Belt (MGB) in Kenya. Maximum total concentrations of Cd, Pb, As and Hg recorded in some samples in the study area were found to be far above the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) maximum allowable concentrations (MAC), respectively, including some from the control site, 150 km away from the MGB. The calculated geometric means showed that the PHE concentrations were significantly above MAC levels (p < 0.05) in the three sample types. The PHE concentrations were as follows: in water, Cd: 1.5-10.5 μg l- 1, Pb: 0.4-13.1 μg l- 1, As: 0.06-23.0 μg l- 1, and Hg: 0.36-52.1 μg l- 1; in soil, Cd: 4.5-570 mg kg- 1, Pb: 5.9-619 mg kg- 1, As: 0.08-86.0 mg kg- 1, and Hg: 0.51-1830 mg kg- 1; and in fish; Cd, 1.9-10.1 mg kg- 1, Pb: 2.0-13.1 mg kg- 1, As: 0.02-1.92 mg kg- 1, and Hg: 0.26-355 mg kg- 1. Concentrations of PHEs were much higher in the area affected by gold mining area than at point S4 which was sampled for comparison and was 70 km away from the gold mining area. We conclude that gold mining and other human activities in the MGB have led to the release of toxic levels of Cd, Pb, As and Hg, which may lead to serious environmental health consequences in humans. We recommend that the public health sector addresses in a timely fashion, these sources of contamination (gold mining and associated human activities), in order to obviate impending health problems. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Mbuku S.M.,Kenya Agricultural Research Institute | Mbuku S.M.,Egerton University | Okeyo A.M.,Kenya International Livestock Research Institute | Kosgey I.S.,Laikipia University | And 2 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2015

The aim of the current simulation study was to maximize the amount (kg) of high value meat arising from surplus males and females per kilogram of the goat population and, maximize weight gains to turnoff age. Subsequently, the study aimed to decrease turnoff age, maximization of reproduction rates and minimization of the mature weight of does in the low-input livestock production system in Kenya. Three crossbreeding systems and a synthetic breed development were evaluated, namely; (a) straight breeding system that utilized pure Small East African goat (SEAG) where parental lines were maintained to generate the desired terminal crosses, (b) three-breed crossbreeding system that utilized SEAG as pure breed, Galla goat (GG) as the first cross sire breed, and Improved Boer goat (IBG) as the terminal sire, (c) two-breed rotational crossbreeding system where the SEAG and IBG were purebreds, and (d) synthetic breed development system utilizing SEAG. ×. IBG. The HotCross crossbreeding simulation software was used to assess the predicted performance of the different goat breed crosses under conditions of agro ecological zones (AEZ) V and VI. A model was developed to compare these crossbreeding systems, and showed the optimum numbers required in each stage of a cross to maximize production. In the AEZ V, it was found that the three-breed terminal system gave 18.2. kg (76%) improvement over straightbreds per doe mated per year. The multi-breed composite realized 20.4. kg (86%) improvement over pure SEAG. In the AEZ VI, it was found that the three-breed terminal system gave 10. kg (64%) improvement over straightbreds per doe mated per year. The multi-breed composite realized 14.6. kg (94%) improvement straightbreds per doe mated per year. The two-breed rotation was worse than the multi-breed composite in both environments. This implies that in low-input livestock production system, a multi-breed composite may be the crossbreeding system of choice, so long as supportive infrastructure is put in place. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Mbuku S.,Kenya Agricultural Research Institute | Mbuku S.,Egerton University | Kosgey I.,Laikipia University | Kosgey I.,Egerton University | And 2 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2014

Economic values for production traits (milk yield, MY, g; 12-month live weight, yLW, kg; consumable meat percentage, CM, %) and functional traits (mature doe live weight, DoLW, kg; mature buck live weight, LWb, kg; kidding frequency, KF; pre-weaning survival rate, PrSR, %; post-weaning survival rate, PoSR,%; doe survival rate, DoSR, %; and residual feed intake, RFI, kg) were estimated using profit functions for the Small East African goat. The scenario evaluated was a fixed flock size, and the resultant economic values (Kes per doe per year) were 34.46 (MY), 62.35 (yLW), 40.69 (CM), 0.15 (DoLW), 2.84 (LWb), 8.69 (KF), 17.38 (PrSR), 16.60 (PoSR), 16.69 (DoSR) and -3.00 (RFI). Similarly, the economic values decreased by -14.7 % (MY), -2.7 % (yLW), -23.9 % (CM), -6.6 % (DoLW), -98 % (LWb), -8.6 % (KF), -8.2 % (PrSR), -8.9 % (PoSR), -8.1 % (DoSR) and 0 % (RFI) when they were risk rated. The economic values for production and functional traits, except RFI, were positive, which implies that genetic improvement of these traits would have a positive effect on the profitability in the pastoral production systems. The application of an Arrow-Pratt coefficient of absolute risk aversion (λ) at the level of 0.02 resulted in a decrease on the estimated economic values, implying that livestock keepers who were risk averse were willing to accept lower expected returns. The results indicate that there would be improvement in traits of economic importance, and, therefore, easy-to-manage genetic improvement programmes should be established. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Gakobo T.W.,Laikipia University | Jere M.G.,University of Cape Town
British Food Journal | Year: 2016

Purpose – African indigenous foods (AIFs) have a special place and role in many African cultures for the sustenance of life and provisions food substances and health. However, it has been observed that consumption of these foods is declining. The purpose of this paper is to establish the determinants of consumption intentions of AIFs in Kenya using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Design/methodology/approach – A stratified random sample of 319 respondents drawn from Nairobi County was surveyed using a self-completion instrument. Partial least squares analysis was used to test the hypotheses regarding the relationship between the predictor constructs (namely; personal attitude towards AIFs, subjective norm, and perceived behaviour control) and consumption intentions. Findings – All the predictor constructs were found to positively influence consumption intention and collectively explained 62.3 per cent of the variance in consumption intention for AIFs. There is a discrepancy between our findings on intention to consume AIFs and the reported declining consumption. Marketers and policy makers should address factors in the intention-consumption behaviour relation in addition to focusing on the antecedents of intention. Originality/value – This study employs the TPB to investigate the determinants of consumption intention for AIFs in Kenya. © 2016, © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Oluoch-Otiego J.,University of Eldoret | Oyoo-Okoth E.,Karatina University | Kiptoo K.K.G.,University of Eldoret | Chemoiwa E.J.,University of Eldoret | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2016

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) regulated by the Stockholm Convention (2001). Although their production and use was stopped almost three decades ago, PCBs are environmental persistent, toxic, and bioaccumulate in biota. We assessed the levels of 7 PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) in sediment and fish (Oreochromis niloticus, Lates niloticus, and Rastrineobola argentea) and evaluated the potential of cestode fish endoparasite (Monobothrioides sp., Proteocephalaus sp., and Ligula intestinalis) as biomonitors of PCBs in Lake Victoria, Kenya. The median concentration of Σ7PCBs in sediments and fish were 2.2–96.3 μg/kg dw and 300–3,000 μg/kg lw, respectively. At all the sampling sites, CB138, CB153, and CB180 were the dominant PCB congeners in sediment and fish samples. Compared to the muscle of the piscine host, Proteocephalaus sp. (infecting L. niloticus) biomagnified PCBs ×6–14 while Monobothrioides sp. (infecting O. niloticus) biomagnified PCBs ×4–8. Meanwhile, L. intestinalis (infecting R. argentea) biomagnified PCBs ×8–16 compared to the muscle of unparasitized fish. We demonstrate the occurrence of moderate to high levels of PCB in sediments and fish in Lake Victoria. We also provide evidence that fish parasites bioaccumulate higher levels of PCBs than their piscine hosts and therefore provide a promising biomonitor of PCBs. We urge further a long-term study to validate the use of the above cestode fish parasites as biomonitoring tools for PCBs. © 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


PubMed | Karatina University, University of Eldoret, Moi University, Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental monitoring and assessment | Year: 2016

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) regulated by the Stockholm Convention (2001). Although their production and use was stopped almost three decades ago, PCBs are environmental persistent, toxic, and bioaccumulate in biota. We assessed the levels of 7 PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) in sediment and fish (Oreochromis niloticus, Lates niloticus, and Rastrineobola argentea) and evaluated the potential of cestode fish endoparasite (Monobothrioides sp., Proteocephalaus sp., and Ligula intestinalis) as biomonitors of PCBs in Lake Victoria, Kenya. The median concentration of 7PCBs in sediments and fish were 2.2-96.3g/kg dw and 300-3,000g/kg lw, respectively. At all the sampling sites, CB138, CB153, and CB180 were the dominant PCB congeners in sediment and fish samples. Compared to the muscle of the piscine host, Proteocephalaus sp. (infecting L. niloticus) biomagnified PCBs 6-14 while Monobothrioides sp. (infecting O. niloticus) biomagnified PCBs 4-8. Meanwhile, L. intestinalis (infecting R. argentea) biomagnified PCBs 8-16 compared to the muscle of unparasitized fish. We demonstrate the occurrence of moderate to high levels of PCB in sediments and fish in Lake Victoria. We also provide evidence that fish parasites bioaccumulate higher levels of PCBs than their piscine hosts and therefore provide a promising biomonitor of PCBs. We urge further a long-term study to validate the use of the above cestode fish parasites as biomonitoring tools for PCBs.


Ogola T.D.O.,Egerton University | Kosgey I.S.,Egerton University | Kosgey I.S.,Laikipia University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

Presently, there are over two billion people globally affected by the scourge of hunger and poverty, most of them being in sub-Saharan Africa. The challenge is to ensure food and nutrition security for them, and one option is the promotion of goat farming. Goat genetic resources play an important socio-economic role in many rural parts of the world. Dairy goats occupy a unique and significant niche in resource-limited smallholder farming systems in the high potential areas of the tropics and subtropics due to their potential to greatly improve livelihoods largely through provision of milk for home consumption and surplus for sale to raise income. Besides, they supply meat, skins, fibre and manure, and play intangible roles like being insurance against emergencies and as an investment in stock. Consequently, numerous projects have adopted the use of dairy goats as an intervention strategy in improving the livelihood of the disadvantaged in various communities in eastern Africa. Community participation, breeding practices, comparative advantage, institutional aspects, extension services and environmental interactions are some of the suggested factors that can impact on the success to which most organizations need to note before embarking upon development initiatives that target the use of dairy goats.


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