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Nyahururu, Kenya

Oluoch-Otiego J.,University of Eldoret | Oyoo-Okoth E.,Karatina University | Kiptoo K.K.G.,University of Eldoret | Chemoiwa E.J.,University of Eldoret | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) regulated by the Stockholm Convention (2001). Although their production and use was stopped almost three decades ago, PCBs are environmental persistent, toxic, and bioaccumulate in biota. We assessed the levels of 7 PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) in sediment and fish (Oreochromis niloticus, Lates niloticus, and Rastrineobola argentea) and evaluated the potential of cestode fish endoparasite (Monobothrioides sp., Proteocephalaus sp., and Ligula intestinalis) as biomonitors of PCBs in Lake Victoria, Kenya. The median concentration of Σ7PCBs in sediments and fish were 2.2–96.3 μg/kg dw and 300–3,000 μg/kg lw, respectively. At all the sampling sites, CB138, CB153, and CB180 were the dominant PCB congeners in sediment and fish samples. Compared to the muscle of the piscine host, Proteocephalaus sp. (infecting L. niloticus) biomagnified PCBs ×6–14 while Monobothrioides sp. (infecting O. niloticus) biomagnified PCBs ×4–8. Meanwhile, L. intestinalis (infecting R. argentea) biomagnified PCBs ×8–16 compared to the muscle of unparasitized fish. We demonstrate the occurrence of moderate to high levels of PCB in sediments and fish in Lake Victoria. We also provide evidence that fish parasites bioaccumulate higher levels of PCBs than their piscine hosts and therefore provide a promising biomonitor of PCBs. We urge further a long-term study to validate the use of the above cestode fish parasites as biomonitoring tools for PCBs. © 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

Gakobo T.W.,Laikipia University | Jere M.G.,University of Cape Town
British Food Journal

Purpose – African indigenous foods (AIFs) have a special place and role in many African cultures for the sustenance of life and provisions food substances and health. However, it has been observed that consumption of these foods is declining. The purpose of this paper is to establish the determinants of consumption intentions of AIFs in Kenya using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Design/methodology/approach – A stratified random sample of 319 respondents drawn from Nairobi County was surveyed using a self-completion instrument. Partial least squares analysis was used to test the hypotheses regarding the relationship between the predictor constructs (namely; personal attitude towards AIFs, subjective norm, and perceived behaviour control) and consumption intentions. Findings – All the predictor constructs were found to positively influence consumption intention and collectively explained 62.3 per cent of the variance in consumption intention for AIFs. There is a discrepancy between our findings on intention to consume AIFs and the reported declining consumption. Marketers and policy makers should address factors in the intention-consumption behaviour relation in addition to focusing on the antecedents of intention. Originality/value – This study employs the TPB to investigate the determinants of consumption intention for AIFs in Kenya. © 2016, © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source

Jerop R.,Egerton University | Kosgey I.S.,Egerton University | Kosgey I.S.,Laikipia University | Owuor G.O.,Egerton University | Chelanga P.K.,Egerton University
Livestock Research for Rural Development

Global demand for animal products is projected to increase progressively due to extensive urbanization, rapid growth of the human population and income dynamics. Dairy goat production, as an option for enhancing food security and income generation in Kenya, is likely to benefit from this prospect. Essentially, goat milk is nutritionally superior to the cow milk. Although the importance of goat milk is empirically known, its valuation from the potential consumers' point of view, together with the associated price performance, is not well understood. This study sought to examine how much consumers were willing to pay and what socio-economic factors influenced the willingness to pay for dairy goat milk in Siaya County of Kenya. Multistage sampling was used to obtain 131 consumers at household level. The double-bounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation model was used to assess consumers' mean willingness to pay for goat milk. Results indicated that consumers were willing to pay an average premium of 38% above the current prevailing price of fresh cow milk. Age, number of years spent in school and number of children present in a household had a positive and significant effect on willingness to pay. Awareness, gender and the number of adults aged between 19 and 59 years present in a household negatively influenced willingness to pay. Based on the findings, programmes that suit the lowly literate potential consumers need to be put in place to educate them on important medicinal and nutritional benefits of goat milk and, consequently, widening market base for goat milk. The general public should be sensitized on the important attributes of goat milk to improve on their awareness and, subsequently, provide correct information to potential consumers so that they can make informed decisions. Source

Omasaki S.K.,Egerton University | Omasaki S.K.,Wageningen University | Charo-Karisa H.,Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute | Kosgey I.S.,Egerton University | Kosgey I.S.,Laikipia University
Livestock Research for Rural Development

To be successful, initiatives to improve smallholder fish production should directly address the needs and objectives of the farmers while promoting national use of available fish genetic resources. This study aimed at providing a better understanding of smallholder fish farming systems, the fish types reared, general management, constraints and needs of fish farmers in western Kenya, and discusses their relevance to the improvement of fish farming. A cross-sectional survey employing sets of structured and semi-structured questionnaires, focused group discussions and participant observation were used to collect information from 102 farmers in three selected Counties. On a scale of most to least important, most farmers ranked cattle as first, followed by fish, goats/ sheep, poultry and bee keeping, respectively. Fish were kept mainly for sale whenever cash was needed and for household consumption. Farmers owning Oreochromis niloticus fish were predominant (56.8%) relative to those owning mixed species (Clarias gariepinus, Oreochromis esculentus and Oreochromis variabilis) at 37.3%. Some farmers (5.9%) had no information on the specific species they owned and confused the other Tilapiines with O. niloticus. A range of traits; mothering ability, growth rate, size, survival, hatchability, feed conversion efficiency, adaptability and resistance to parasites were considered equally important and were ranked very highly by the fish farmers. Growth and size ranked as the most important traits. Most farmers purchased their foundation (66.7%) and replacement (61.8%) stocks. No farmer across the Counties reported any incidence of disease outbreak. However, about 93.1% of the farmers reported a strong parasite problem. Predators also seriously affected farmers, where birds (88.2%) and frogs (71.6%) had a major effect. Lack of feeds, finances, skills and fingerlings were ranked, in ascending order, as the most important problems. Generally, initiatives to improve management practices are an overriding priority in smallholder fish production. Improved management will lead to increased productivity in the short-term and foster participation of farmers in the development of long-term fish improvement strategies. Source

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