Lahore University of Management Sciences
Lahore, Pakistan

The Lahore University of Management science , is a private research university located in the vicinity of Defence Housing Authority of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.Founded in 1984 by the patronage of the business–industrial community, the university offers programmes in science, arts, humanities, business and managements science. The university is ranked among the top universities in the country and is currently ranked number one in the "business category" by the HEC as of 2013. In addition, the university entered its name in the university ranking list issued by Quacquarelli Symonds for top 700 universities in the world. The university offers research studies in business management and information technology.The university offers scientific research in arts, humanities, philosophy, arts, management engineering, social and natural science. The university is a member of Association of Commonwealth Universities of the United Kingdom. Wikipedia.

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News Article | October 28, 2015

The Islamic civilization lays claim to the world's oldest continually operational university. The University of Qarawiyyin was founded in Fes, Morocco, in ad 859, at the beginning of an Islamic Golden Age. Despite such auspicious beginnings, universities in the region are now in dire straits, as demonstrated by a report we have authored, released this week (see The 57 countries of the Muslim world — those with a Muslim-majority population, and part of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) — are home to nearly 25% of the world's people. But as of 2012, they had contributed only 1.6% of the world's patents, 6% of its academic publications, and 2.4% of the global research expenditure1, 2 (see 'Quarter deck'). There have been only three Nobel laureates in the sciences from OIC countries; today these nations host fewer than a dozen universities in the top 400 of the many world rankings, and none in the top 100. To assess this situation, for the past two years we have led an international non-governmental and non-partisan task force of experts, formed by the Muslim World Science Initiative. The task force was chaired by Zakri Abdul Hamid, science adviser to the prime minister of Malaysia. It included a dozen experts and scholars — including policymakers, vice-chancellors, professors, and science communicators — from around the world. Our work confirmed many widely known problems, as highlighted by reports such as the Royal Society's 2014 Atlas of Islamic World Science and Innovation2. For example, OIC countries on average invest less than 0.5% of their gross domestic product (GDP) on research and development (R&D). Only Malaysia spends slightly more than 1% (the world average is 1.78%; most advanced countries spend 2–3%). Students in the Muslim world who participate in standardized international science tests lag well behind their peers worldwide, and the situation seems to be worsening3, 4. Our report highlights an even more problematic situation. University science programmes are using narrow content and outdated teaching methods. In most OIC countries, students are channelled into science or non-science streams around the age of 14, and their education thereafter is completely binary: science and technology students receive little in the way of humanities, social-science, language or arts education, and vice versa. Only one university in the region offers a programme in 'science and technology studies': the University of Malaya in Kuala Lumpur. To become beacons in society, OIC universities need to revitalize their teaching methods and meld science with liberal arts such as history and philosophy. For universities to become truly meritocratic, they must develop new ways of assessing faculty members to reward valuable research, teaching and outreach. And for this to happen, governments must give universities more autonomy. Our task force gathered data on science production for the 20 OIC countries that together have represented more than 90% of OIC scientific productivity over the past two decades. From the period 1996–2005 to 2006–15, most countries doubled or tripled their production of science papers. Qatar's output rocketed by a factor of 7.7, and Iran's by 7.6. But the number of scientific papers produced remains below the average of countries with similar GDP per capita. We found an average of 4.2 papers per dollar of GDP per capita for our OIC sample in the most recent decade, compared to an average of 8.6 for a group of 4 peer countries such as Brazil, Spain, South Korea, South Africa and Israel (see Supplementary Information). Papers from these OIC countries are cited less frequently than those from other nations. The average was 5.7 citations per paper for 2006–15, compared with 9.7 for South Africa and 13.8 for Israel, countries with a comparable GDP per capita. A list of the 100 most-cited papers since 1900 has none with a lead author from a Muslim-majority nation (see Nature 514, 550–553; 2014). Scientific research must be relevant and responsive to society's intellectual and practical needs. This dual goal seems to be out of sight — and often out of consideration — for most academic institutions in the region. For scientists and engineers to be creative, innovative and able to engage with questions of ethics, religion and the wider social purpose of research, students must receive a broad, liberal-arts-style education5. A few institutions attempt to relate their students' learning to their cultural backgrounds and contemporary knowledge. In the early 1970s, Tehran's Sharif University of Technology began a rich programme melding Islamic history, philosophy and culture with science and engineering. Its graduate programme in the philosophy of science remains the only one in the OIC that we are aware of. It is perhaps no coincidence that the most recent Times Higher Education world university rankings named Sharif University as the top Iranian university and number eight in the OIC. In recent years, US-style liberal-arts establishments have been set up in the region, modelled on the long-running and respected American University of Beirut and the American University in Cairo. One such is the American University of Sharjah (AUS) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), which this year ranked seventh in the QS Rankings of universities in the 22 Arab countries. Fully home-grown and self-funded and with no formal affiliation with a US institution, the AUS requires science and engineering students to take roughly one-third of their required 40 or so courses in humanities, social sciences, language and communication. Habib University, founded last year in Karachi, Pakistan, also follows this model. Here, science and engineering students must take courses such as 'Understanding Modernity' and 'Hikma 1 & 2' — a two-course sequence that translates as 'traditional wisdom' — as well as many others that seek to create rounded rather than narrow engineering and science professionals. Other educational establishments should follow suit. Science classes themselves have serious problems. The textbooks used in OIC universities are often imported from the United States or Europe. Although the content is of a high standard, they assume a Western experience and use English or French as the language of instruction. This disadvantages many students, and creates a disconnect between their education and culture. To encourage the production of higher-quality, local textbooks and other academic material, universities need to reward staff for producing these at least as much as they do for research publication. Some basic facts are seen as controversial, and marginalized. Evolution, for example, is usually taught only to biology students, often as “a theory”, and is rarely connected to the rest of the body of knowledge. One ongoing study has found, for example, that most Malaysian physicians and medical students reject evolution (see Evolution needs to be taught widely and shown to be compatible with Islam and its culture6. Teaching the philosophy and history of science would help, too. The global consensus is that enquiry-based science education fosters the deepest understanding of scientific concepts and laws. But in most OIC universities, lecture-based teaching still prevails. Exceptions are rare. One is the Petroleum Institute, an engineering university in Abu Dhabi, UAE, where the faculty has created a hands-on experience with positive results on student interest and enrolment, particularly of women. Another problem is that faculty members rarely — if ever — receive any training or evaluation in pedagogy. This is true elsewhere in the world, but change is harder in many OIC nations. In most, curriculum changes, faculty appointments and promotions are set by ministry rules and decided by centralized commissions and bureaucracies. This leaves little room for universities to innovate. Universities in OIC nations need to be granted more autonomy to transform themselves into meritocracies that strive for scientific excellence and then lead rather than follow the winds of change towards greater transparency and meritocracy within their societies. Universities need to promote the right metrics, so that they do not inadvertently encourage plagiarism and junk science through pressure to publish. The region needs consistent data on science student and faculty profiles, curricula, pedagogy, language of instruction and so on, akin to what the Institute of Statistics of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization collects — but at a fine-grained, university level. This is a task that must be undertaken by national or transnational bodies, such as the Islamic World Academy of Sciences (IAS) or the Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (ISESCO). We also call for reform of science curricula and pedagogy. Universities need to deliver more multidisciplinary, exploratory science education. A good start would be training for university teachers, with workshops on new tools and approaches. Barriers need to be broken between departments and colleges and new programmes constructed. Professors need to be free to teach topics that are not tightly regulated by ministries. There are grassroots efforts across the Muslim world to stimulate curiosity about science among students of all ages, operating without much government support. Ahmed Djebbar, an emeritus science historian at the University of Lille in France, has constructed an online, pre-university-level course called 'The Discoveries in Islamic Countries' available in three languages7, which relates science concepts to great discoveries and stories from the Islamic Golden Age. Such courses should be scaled up and shared by many institutions. Universities will need to implement reforms individually. We hope that the inspiration from a few islands of excellence will, in time, turn the tide of public and political opinion. There is precedent. In Pakistan, two private universities established in the 1980s — the Aga Khan University and Hospital in Karachi and Lahore University of Management Sciences — revolutionized medical and business education within a decade of their creation. Students elsewhere began demanding the standard set by these educational pioneers. The same can be done for science. Our task force is putting out an open call for universities across the Muslim world to join a voluntary Network of Excellence of Universities for Science (NEXUS), to be launched early next year. This peer group will be managed by the task force and housed in science adviser Zakri's office. We plan for NEXUS to run summer schools for university administrators, to monitor the progress of reforms at participating universities, and to issue a peer report card that will assess the performance of the universities in meeting milestones, thus recognizing and inspiring further improvements. True transformation will require much broader action from ministries, regulators and funding agencies, and these may be the most resistant to change. Without tough reforms, the dream of a scientific revival in the Muslim world will remain just that.

News Article | November 28, 2016

A new study published in the journal Ecological Modelling provides a unique new modelling framework, which translates findings from psychological research into a formula that can be applied to social and environmental perceptions and consumer behavior. One of the major questions related to sustainability, environmental protection, and climate change is how to convince people to modify their behavior in ways that reduce their consumption. "Psychological studies suggest that while making decisions about how much of a resource to harvest, consumers take both ecological and social information into perspective," says Talha Manzoor, a researcher at the Lahore University of Management Sciences in Pakistan, who started the work as a participant in the 2013 IIASA Young Scientists Summer Program (YSSP). "In a perfect world we could have top-down solutions where governments could simply agree together on a shared solution to tackle issues like deforestation, overfishing, and climate change," says IIASA Advanced Systems Analysis Program Director Elena Rovenskaya, who advised Manzoor during the YSSP and was a coauthor on the study. "But in the real world we can't always rely on such solutions. So the aim of this study was to see how far individual action could get us towards sustainable solutions, and how individuals influence each other." Manzoor explains the concept through the example of fishing: in the oceans, many species are fished by multiple countries. If countries work together and agree on limits, they can ensure a sustainable stock for everyone. But in the absence of effective international agreements, individual countries will work to maximize their own profit, which could lead to collapse of the whole stock--to nobody's benefit. The new study frames a simple model of consumer behavior and information exchange, and their impact on the dynamics of a shared renewable resource. In many cases when a tragedy of the commons occurs, the absence of coordinated decisions by individual consumers leads to overusing the resource. The researchers used the model to examine to what extent information exchange can help overcome the challenge, and whether affinity between consumers helps them to use the resource more efficiently. They were surprised to find that, at least in the theoretical framework, consumers' individual actions could go a long way towards optimizing the use of the shared resource. In particular, when individuals attached more relevance to information about the actions of others as compared to information about the state of the resource, they were more likely to modify their actions to reduce their own consumption. "The study suggests that one way to encourage sustainability is to nurture a general perception that the resource stock is critical due to society's overexploitation. This creates an awareness that it is society, and not nature, that is responsible for the scarcity and so the only way to save the stock is by modifying the mindsets of consumers," explains Manzoor. Although theoretical, the study provides some reason for optimism in a world where international agreements on the environment are challenging to make and even more challenging to enforce. It implies that consumers may have more power than they think, both in changing their own behavior and influencing others. "The beauty of this study is that it is a completely new method," says Rovenskaya. "We have taken complex psychological research and managed to translate it into a formula that can be used to examine a global problem." Manzoor T, Rovenskaya E, Muhammad A, (2016). Game-theoretic insights into the role of environmentalism and social-ecological relevance: A cognitive model of resource consumption. Ecological Modelling 340(2016) 74-85. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2016.09.007 The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) is an international scientific institute that conducts research into the critical issues of global environmental, economic, technological, and social change that we face in the twenty-first century. Our findings provide valuable options to policymakers to shape the future of our changing world. IIASA is independent and funded by prestigious research funding agencies in Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania. http://www.

Shatanawi W.,Hashemite University | Samet B.,University of Tunis | Abbas M.,Lahore University of Management Sciences
Mathematical and Computer Modelling | Year: 2012

We establish coupled fixed point theorems for mixed monotone mappings satisfying nonlinear contraction involving two altering distance functions in ordered partial metric spaces. Presented theorems extend and generalize the results of Bhaskar and Lakshmikantham [T.G. Bhaskar and V. Lakshmikantham, Fixed point theorems in partially ordered metric spaces and applications, Nonlinear Anal. 65 (2006) 1379-1393] and Harjani etal. [J. Harjani, B. López and K. Sadarangani, Fixed point theorems for mixed monotone operators and applications to integral equations, Nonlinear Anal. 74 (2011) 1749-1760]. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

News Article | October 11, 2016

Views from the Marketplace are paid for by advertisers and select partners of MIT Technology Review. Tanmay Chaturvedi and Muhammad Awais Bin Altaf can summarize the primary benefit of studying entrepreneurship at MIT in just three words: real-life experience. “Exposure to what’s happening in the world was my biggest takeaway from four months at MIT,” says Chaturvedi, a chemical engineer who is pursuing a PhD in interdisciplinary engineering at Masdar Institute, a research-focused technology university in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. “It opened a window on the real world, and it helps in linking my research work with real work,” says Bin Altaf, who recently completed a PhD in interdisciplinary engineering at Masdar Institute and is now an assistant professor in the electrical engineering department at the Lahore University of Management Sciences in Pakistan. Masdar Institute was established with the assistance of MIT through the MIT/ Masdar Institute Cooperative Program (MIT&MICP), with graduate classes beginning in 2009. Since then, the two institutes have collaborated on strategic research projects and academic-exchange opportunities. In one such program, Masdar Institute PhD students apply to spend a semester abroad taking classes and conducting research at MIT. The most recent group of students included Chaturvedi and Bin Altaf, who each enrolled in an intensive MIT “ventures” course, which included mentoring, interacting with researchers and visiting entrepreneurs, and creating business plans or prototypes for potential real-world ventures. That combination appealed to Chaturvedi, a native of India whose family has lived in the UAE for many years. “I wanted an emphasis on development and entrepreneurship, and MIT has a very vibrant startup environment,” he says, adding that he especially enjoyed meeting entrepreneurs. “These were the people who had gone through the grind of selling their ideas, entering different competitions, and trying to raise money, or who are going through the process right now.” At MIT, Chaturvedi also met people conducting research similar to his own, which focuses on generating renewable energy from common biomass sources such as palm-tree leaves, seaweed, algae, and landscaping waste. “At MIT, there are so many people working on this topic,” Chaturvedi says. “You don’t realize that there are so many people out there following the same path that you are.” While at MIT, Chaturvedi enrolled in Development Ventures, a one-semester course focused on founding, financing, and building entrepreneurial ventures that target developing, emerging, and underserved markets. Taught by MIT faculty members Alex “Sandy” Pentland and Joost Bonsen, the course particularly emphasizes “transformative innovations and exponentially scalable business models that can enable or accelerate major positive social change throughout the world.” For Chaturvedi and his classmates, that meant developing and entering proposed ventures in MIT’s annual $100,000 Entrepreneurship Competition (widely known as “the MIT $100K”). “They wanted an actual business plan, not a class final project,” recalls Chaturvedi, whose four-person team designed a concept for a lightweight shipping container with embedded technology that people in remote areas could use, post-delivery, to convert agricultural and household waste to electricity or biogas. The team’s plan didn’t win the MIT $100K, but Chaturvedi, who expects to complete his PhD at Masdar Institute in May 2017, called the experience “a great exercise in learning to submit a plan to a business competition.” His Masdar Institute colleague, Bin Altaf, focuses on developing energy-efficient wearable electronic biomedical devices, specifically on designing sensors that detect and monitor epilepsy. Not surprisingly, Bin Altaf enrolled in Healthcare Ventures, another one-semester entrepreneurship seminar. Led by MIT Professor Martha Gray and Senior Lecturer Zen Chu, the class places special emphasis on startups combining digital health and high technology. “The course was directly aligned with my research,” Bin Altaf says, adding that he came away with a strong understanding about the steps involved in designing a prototype, marketing a concept, and launching a startup. Working in groups, Healthcare Ventures students identified industry problems, then proposed solutions for them, addressing both business and technology issues. Bin Altaf, whose team explored options for addressing mental-health problems in academic institutions, focused on the project’s technical aspects, including developing a prototype for testing the group’s ideas. The experience helped Bin Altaf—who hopes to take his epilepsy-related medical device to market—start thinking seriously about a business model for his research work. “It taught me a lot of lessons and strategies for moving forward,” he says. Like Chaturvedi, Bin Altaf found interacting with entrepreneurs especially useful. “One of the main highlights of the course was the mentoring. A lot of the instructors own their own health-care startups, so that helped a lot in guiding us,” he says. The course also required students to make weekly progress presentations before the whole class—including entrepreneurs. He adds: “It was really nice to get direct feedback. You get a chance to align yourself on the right path.” Bin Altaf, a native of Pakistan who was visiting MIT for the first time, calls the class’s diverse makeup an unexpected bonus. “It helped me to work with students from different backgrounds,” he says. “Different people use different technical language. It’s essential to explain your research or problem in a way that all can understand.” Chaturvedi, who had visited MIT twice previously, was especially impressed this time by both the talent and the generosity he encountered on campus. “It seemed like everyone was involved in some groundbreaking work, and yet they were so humble,” he recalls. “They would share everything over dinner or over sandwiches in the park.” Finally, he says, all the students in the most recent Masdar Institute delegation shared one takeaway. “As a researcher, you’re very focused on fact and scientific evidence. We all agreed when you experience that at MIT, it’s at a whole new level,” he says. “It’s a great opportunity if you want to see how many people like you are pursuing things that are going to have an impact on the most pressing problems of the world today.”

Zaheer M.,Lahore University of Management Sciences | Kempe R.,University of Bayreuth
ACS Catalysis | Year: 2015

Lignin is a robust biomacromolecule (or a polymer) that gives structural integrity to plants and constitutes 25-35% of the woody biomass. Lignin is inedible, barely used, and contains mostly aromatic building blocks. Because of these features, lignin is considered an important renewable feedstock for the production of fine chemicals (or fuels) and the only significant feedstock providing aromatic compounds. The C-O bonds of aryl ethers are the most abundant linkages in the framework of lignin. In this Perspective, the state-of-the-art of selective hydrogenolysis (HGL) of C-O bonds of aryl ethers is discussed. Particularly, progress made recently and ethers relevant to lignin valorization are reviewed. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Mahmood A.,University of Western Australia | Khan S.,Lahore University of Management Sciences
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing | Year: 2012

Partial computation elimination techniques are often used for fast template matching. At a particular search location, computations are prematurely terminated as soon as it is found that this location cannot compete with an already known best match location. Due to the nonmonotonic growth pattern of the correlation-based similarity measures, partial computation elimination techniques have been traditionally considered inapplicable to speed up these measures. In this paper, we show that partial elimination techniques may be applied to a correlation coefficient by using a monotonic formulation, and we propose basic-mode and extended-mode partial correlation elimination algorithms for fast template matching. The basic-mode algorithm is more efficient on small template sizes, whereas the extended mode is faster on medium and larger templates. We also propose a strategy to decide which algorithm to use for a given data set. To achieve a high speedup, elimination algorithms require an initial guess of the peak correlation value. We propose two initialization schemes including a coarse-to-fine scheme for larger templates and a two-stage technique for small- and medium-sized templates. Our proposed algorithms are exact, i.e., having exhaustive equivalent accuracy, and are compared with the existing fast techniques using real image data sets on a wide variety of template sizes. While the actual speedups are data dependent, in most cases, our proposed algorithms have been found to be significantly faster than the other algorithms. © 2011 IEEE.

Khan H.A.,Lahore University of Management Sciences | Pervaiz S.,Lahore University of Management Sciences
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

Due to increasing fossil fuel prices and their limited availability, the global energy focus is shifting towards renewable resources. However, the uptake of these resources by Pakistan is rather slow. Various factors such as political interference, social unacceptability and economic barriers are deterring the widespread use of these resources. In addition, there is a consensus in the literature that technological knowledge of solar PV in Pakistan is limited at best. Many studies have indicated technological shortcomings as one of the major barriers in PV growth, however very little or no work has been reported which could actually address these issues. This paper reviews the current state of affairs in solar PV with a focus towards the technological shortcomings. We highlight various inefficient practices in the system design which lead to un-optimized and unreliable systems, thus contributing towards the lack of social acceptability of PV. We also propose several modifications that should be added to the design process of such systems to make them more accurate and reliable. Conforming to proper design methodologies and detailed understanding of technological aspects will go a long way in making PV grow in Pakistan. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Khan I.,Lahore University of Management Sciences
Journal of Combinatorial Theory. Series B | Year: 2016

A perfect matching in a 4-uniform hypergraph on n vertices is a subset of [n/4] disjoint edges. We prove that if H is a sufficiently large 4-uniform hypergraph on n= 4k vertices such that every vertex belongs to more than (n-1 3)-(3n/4 3) edges, then H contains a perfect matching. A construction due to Hàn, Person, and Schacht shows that this result is the best possible. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Khan S.H.,Qatar University | Abbas M.,Lahore University of Management Sciences
Computers and Mathematics with Applications | Year: 2011

In this paper, we get some results on strong and △-convergence in CAT(0) spaces for an iterative scheme which is both faster than and independent of the Ishikawa scheme. We also obtain some results for two mappings using the Ishikawa-type iteration scheme. The motivation of the present work comes from that of Dhompongsa and Panyanak (2008) [3]. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Hassan T.,Lahore University of Management Sciences | Javed F.,Lahore University of Management Sciences | Arshad N.,Lahore University of Management Sciences
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid | Year: 2014

Choice of load signature or feature space is one of the most fundamental design choices for non - intrusive load monitoring or energy disaggregation problem. Electrical power quantities, harmonic load characteristics, canonical transient and steady-state waveforms are some of the typical choices of load signature or load signature basis for current research addressing appliance classification and prediction. This paper expands and evaluates appliance load signatures based on V-I trajectory - the mutual locus of instantaneous voltage and current waveforms - for precision and robustness of prediction in classification algorithms used to disaggregate residential overall energy use and predict constituent appliance profiles. We also demonstrate the use of variants of differential evolution as a novel strategy for selection of optimal load models in context of energy disaggregation. A publicly available benchmark dataset REDD is employed for evaluation purposes. Our experimental evaluations indicate that these load signatures, in conjunction with a number of popular classification algorithms, offer better or generally comparable overall precision of prediction, robustness and reliability against dynamic, noisy and highly similar load signatures with reference to electrical power quantities and harmonic content. Herein, wave-shape features are found to be an effective new basis of classification and prediction for semi-automated energy disaggregation and monitoring. © 2013 IEEE.

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