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Fitzgibbons S.C.,Lahey Clinic Medical Center | Chen J.,University of Massachusetts Boston | Jagsi R.,University of Michigan | Weinstein D.,Massachusetts General Hospital
Annals of Surgery | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term impact of the 2003 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty hour limits on residents' perception of education. BACKGROUND: Eight years after the introduction of the ACGME duty hour limits, graduate medical education programs implemented a revised set of standards. Currently, limited data exist related to the long-term impact of the 2003 standards on resident education. METHODS: A yearly survey from 2003 to 2009 was administered to orthopedic residents in a multi-institutional program, inquiring about several aspects of the resident's educational experience, work hours, amount of sleep, fatigue and its impact, and preparedness for practice. RESULTS: A total of 216 responses (69%) were obtained from surveyed orthopedic residents between 2003 and 2009. There was no significant change in the average reported hours of sleep (34.6 hours per week in 2003 vs 33.7 hours per week between 2004 and 2009) despite a decrease in the mean reported number of work hours (74.5 hours in 2003 vs 66.2 hours in 2009; P = 0.046). However, a decrease in perceived fatigue and its negative impact on patient safety and quality of care was noted. The perceived sufficiency of direct clinical experience, the number of hours spent performing major procedures, and the overall satisfaction with education also decreased. Finally, the residents' sense of clinical preparedness diminished after the work hour limits were in place. CONCLUSIONS: After the implementation of the 2003 duty hour limits, residents' perceptions of fatigue improved without any increase in the reported amount of sleep. In addition, decreased resident satisfaction with their education and a diminished sense of clinical preparedness were noted. Additional studies are needed to better understand the influence of work hours and fatigue on the outcomes of education, resident well-being, and patient care to guide the optimal design and delivery of graduate medical education. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Hechenbleikner E.M.,Johns Hopkins University | Buckley J.C.,Lahey Clinic Medical Center | Wick E.C.,Johns Hopkins University
Diseases of the Colon and Rectum | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Rectourethral fistulas are uncommon. Retrospective studies and case reports have highlighted various approaches for surgical repair. Because clinical presentations and technical expertise vary widely, no single procedure has been universally adopted. OBJECTIVE: We sought to qualitatively analyze studies describing surgical techniques and outcomes in adult acquired rectourethral fistulas to outline universal approaches for evaluation and management. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (PubMed, Ovid) and the Cochrane Library were searched by using the terms rectourethral fistulas, recto-urethral fistulas, urethrorectal fistulas, and prostatourethral-rectal fistulas. STUDY SELECTION: All studies were retrospective, in English, and reported at least 4 cases. Any series with >50% congenital cases or <50% adults (19+ years) was excluded. Of the 569 records identified, 26 articles were included. INTERVENTION: The intervention was surgical repair of rectourethral fistula. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measures were successful fistula closure, fistula recurrence or persistence, and permanent fecal and/or urinary diversion. RESULTS: Four hundred sixteen patients were identified, including 169 (40%) who had previous pelvic irradiation and/or ablation. Most patients (90%) underwent 1 of 4 categories of repair: transanal (5.9%), transabdominal (12.5%), transsphincteric (15.7%), and transperineal (65.9%). Tissue interposition flaps, predominantly gracilis muscle, were used in 72% of repairs. The fistula was successfully closed in 87.5%. Overall permanent fecal and/or urinary diversion rates were 10.6% and 8.3%. Most high-volume centers (≥25 patients) performed transperineal repairs with tissue flaps in 100% of cases. LIMITATIONS: This review was limited by the heterogeneity of repairs and bias toward preferred surgical approaches in single-center studies. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of complexity, rectourethral fistulas have an initial closure rate approaching 90% when the transperineal approach is used. Permanent fecal and/or urinary diversion should be a last resort in patients with devastated, nonfunctional fecal and urinary systems. © The ASCRS 2013.

Grgurich P.E.,Lahey Clinic Medical Center
Expert review of respiratory medicine | Year: 2012

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens is a leading healthcare-associated infection in mechanically ventilated patients. The incidence of VAP due to MDR pathogens has increased significantly in the last decade. Risk factors for VAP due to MDR organisms include advanced age, immunosuppression, broad-spectrum antibiotic exposure, increased severity of illness, previous hospitalization or residence in a chronic care facility and prolonged duration of invasive mechanical ventilation. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and several different species of Gram-negative bacteria can cause MDR VAP. Especially difficult Gram-negative bacteria include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteraciae and extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing bacteria. Proper management includes selecting appropriate antibiotics, optimizing dosing and using timely de-escalation based on antiimicrobial sensitivity data. Evidence-based strategies to prevent VAP that incorporate multidisciplinary staff education and collaboration are essential to reduce the burden of this disease and associated healthcare costs.

Gordon F.D.,Tufts Medical School | Gordon F.D.,Lahey Clinic Medical Center
Clinics in Liver Disease | Year: 2012

Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid in the peritoneum. It is the most common complication of cirrhosis, with a prevalence of approximately 10%. Over a 10-year period, 50% of patients with previously compensated cirrhosis are expected to develop ascites. As a marker of hepatic decompensation, ascites is associated with a poor prognosis, with only a 56% survival 3 years after onset. In addition, morbidity is increased because of the risk of additional complications, such as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatorenal syndrome. Understanding the pathophysiology of ascites is essential for its proper management. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Hesketh P.J.,Lahey Clinic Medical Center | Sanz-Altamira P.,Commonwealth Hematology Oncology
Supportive Care in Cancer | Year: 2012

Purpose: This study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of aprepitant, dexamethasone, and palonosetron in the prevention of nausea and vomiting in breast cancer patients receiving their initial cycle of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC). Methods: Patients with breast cancer, ≥ age 18, with a performance status of ≥2, receiving doxorubicin (≥60 mg/m 2) and cyclophosphamide (≥500 mg/m 2) for the first time were eligible. Prior to chemotherapy patients received aprepitant 125 mg orally (PO), dexamethasone 8-10 mg PO/intravenously (IV), and palonosetron 0.25 mg IV. On days 2-3, dexamethasone 4 mg PO and aprepitant 80 mg PO were given. Outcomes were recorded in patient diaries for the 120-h study period following chemotherapy. Primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving complete response (no emesis or rescue) for the 120-h study period. Results: Thirty-six patients were enrolled and all are evaluable. The median age was 53 (33-75) and 36 are females. Eighteen patients (50%) achieved a complete response during the 120-h study period. Acute (≥24 h) and delayed (24-120 h) complete response rates were 81% (27/36) and 61% (22/36), respectively. No emesis rates for the acute, delayed, and overall study periods were 97% (35/36), 94% (34/36), and 92% (33/36), respectively. Treatment was well tolerated. Conclusions: The combination of aprepitant, dexamethasone, and palonosetron prevented emesis in more than 90% of breast cancer patients receiving their initial cycle of AC chemotherapy. Nausea was less well controlled. Overall complete response was achieved in one half of the study patients. Further improvement in the prevention of AC-induced chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting will require more effective antinausea treatments. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

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