Hechenbleikner E.M.,Johns Hopkins University |
Buckley J.C.,Lahey Clinic Medical Center |
Wick E.C.,Johns Hopkins University
Diseases of the Colon and Rectum | Year: 2013
BACKGROUND: Rectourethral fistulas are uncommon. Retrospective studies and case reports have highlighted various approaches for surgical repair. Because clinical presentations and technical expertise vary widely, no single procedure has been universally adopted. OBJECTIVE: We sought to qualitatively analyze studies describing surgical techniques and outcomes in adult acquired rectourethral fistulas to outline universal approaches for evaluation and management. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (PubMed, Ovid) and the Cochrane Library were searched by using the terms rectourethral fistulas, recto-urethral fistulas, urethrorectal fistulas, and prostatourethral-rectal fistulas. STUDY SELECTION: All studies were retrospective, in English, and reported at least 4 cases. Any series with >50% congenital cases or <50% adults (19+ years) was excluded. Of the 569 records identified, 26 articles were included. INTERVENTION: The intervention was surgical repair of rectourethral fistula. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measures were successful fistula closure, fistula recurrence or persistence, and permanent fecal and/or urinary diversion. RESULTS: Four hundred sixteen patients were identified, including 169 (40%) who had previous pelvic irradiation and/or ablation. Most patients (90%) underwent 1 of 4 categories of repair: transanal (5.9%), transabdominal (12.5%), transsphincteric (15.7%), and transperineal (65.9%). Tissue interposition flaps, predominantly gracilis muscle, were used in 72% of repairs. The fistula was successfully closed in 87.5%. Overall permanent fecal and/or urinary diversion rates were 10.6% and 8.3%. Most high-volume centers (≥25 patients) performed transperineal repairs with tissue flaps in 100% of cases. LIMITATIONS: This review was limited by the heterogeneity of repairs and bias toward preferred surgical approaches in single-center studies. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of complexity, rectourethral fistulas have an initial closure rate approaching 90% when the transperineal approach is used. Permanent fecal and/or urinary diversion should be a last resort in patients with devastated, nonfunctional fecal and urinary systems. © The ASCRS 2013.
Hesketh P.J.,Lahey Clinic Medical Center |
Sanz-Altamira P.,Commonwealth Hematology Oncology
Supportive Care in Cancer | Year: 2012
Purpose: This study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of aprepitant, dexamethasone, and palonosetron in the prevention of nausea and vomiting in breast cancer patients receiving their initial cycle of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC). Methods: Patients with breast cancer, ≥ age 18, with a performance status of ≥2, receiving doxorubicin (≥60 mg/m 2) and cyclophosphamide (≥500 mg/m 2) for the first time were eligible. Prior to chemotherapy patients received aprepitant 125 mg orally (PO), dexamethasone 8-10 mg PO/intravenously (IV), and palonosetron 0.25 mg IV. On days 2-3, dexamethasone 4 mg PO and aprepitant 80 mg PO were given. Outcomes were recorded in patient diaries for the 120-h study period following chemotherapy. Primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving complete response (no emesis or rescue) for the 120-h study period. Results: Thirty-six patients were enrolled and all are evaluable. The median age was 53 (33-75) and 36 are females. Eighteen patients (50%) achieved a complete response during the 120-h study period. Acute (≥24 h) and delayed (24-120 h) complete response rates were 81% (27/36) and 61% (22/36), respectively. No emesis rates for the acute, delayed, and overall study periods were 97% (35/36), 94% (34/36), and 92% (33/36), respectively. Treatment was well tolerated. Conclusions: The combination of aprepitant, dexamethasone, and palonosetron prevented emesis in more than 90% of breast cancer patients receiving their initial cycle of AC chemotherapy. Nausea was less well controlled. Overall complete response was achieved in one half of the study patients. Further improvement in the prevention of AC-induced chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting will require more effective antinausea treatments. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Gordon F.D.,Tufts Medical School |
Gordon F.D.,Lahey Clinic Medical Center
Clinics in Liver Disease | Year: 2012
Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid in the peritoneum. It is the most common complication of cirrhosis, with a prevalence of approximately 10%. Over a 10-year period, 50% of patients with previously compensated cirrhosis are expected to develop ascites. As a marker of hepatic decompensation, ascites is associated with a poor prognosis, with only a 56% survival 3 years after onset. In addition, morbidity is increased because of the risk of additional complications, such as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatorenal syndrome. Understanding the pathophysiology of ascites is essential for its proper management. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Fitzgibbons S.C.,Lahey Clinic Medical Center |
Chen J.,University of Massachusetts Boston |
Jagsi R.,University of Michigan |
Weinstein D.,Massachusetts General Hospital
Annals of Surgery | Year: 2012
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term impact of the 2003 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty hour limits on residents' perception of education. BACKGROUND: Eight years after the introduction of the ACGME duty hour limits, graduate medical education programs implemented a revised set of standards. Currently, limited data exist related to the long-term impact of the 2003 standards on resident education. METHODS: A yearly survey from 2003 to 2009 was administered to orthopedic residents in a multi-institutional program, inquiring about several aspects of the resident's educational experience, work hours, amount of sleep, fatigue and its impact, and preparedness for practice. RESULTS: A total of 216 responses (69%) were obtained from surveyed orthopedic residents between 2003 and 2009. There was no significant change in the average reported hours of sleep (34.6 hours per week in 2003 vs 33.7 hours per week between 2004 and 2009) despite a decrease in the mean reported number of work hours (74.5 hours in 2003 vs 66.2 hours in 2009; P = 0.046). However, a decrease in perceived fatigue and its negative impact on patient safety and quality of care was noted. The perceived sufficiency of direct clinical experience, the number of hours spent performing major procedures, and the overall satisfaction with education also decreased. Finally, the residents' sense of clinical preparedness diminished after the work hour limits were in place. CONCLUSIONS: After the implementation of the 2003 duty hour limits, residents' perceptions of fatigue improved without any increase in the reported amount of sleep. In addition, decreased resident satisfaction with their education and a diminished sense of clinical preparedness were noted. Additional studies are needed to better understand the influence of work hours and fatigue on the outcomes of education, resident well-being, and patient care to guide the optimal design and delivery of graduate medical education. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Grgurich P.E.,Lahey Clinic Medical Center
Expert review of respiratory medicine | Year: 2012
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens is a leading healthcare-associated infection in mechanically ventilated patients. The incidence of VAP due to MDR pathogens has increased significantly in the last decade. Risk factors for VAP due to MDR organisms include advanced age, immunosuppression, broad-spectrum antibiotic exposure, increased severity of illness, previous hospitalization or residence in a chronic care facility and prolonged duration of invasive mechanical ventilation. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and several different species of Gram-negative bacteria can cause MDR VAP. Especially difficult Gram-negative bacteria include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteraciae and extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing bacteria. Proper management includes selecting appropriate antibiotics, optimizing dosing and using timely de-escalation based on antiimicrobial sensitivity data. Evidence-based strategies to prevent VAP that incorporate multidisciplinary staff education and collaboration are essential to reduce the burden of this disease and associated healthcare costs.
Healy W.L.,Lahey Clinic Medical Center |
Rana A.J.,Lahey Clinic Medical Center |
Iorio R.,Lahey Clinic Medical Center
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research | Year: 2011
Background: The hospital cost of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the United States is a major growing expense for the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). Many hospitals are unable to deliver TKA with profitable or breakeven economics under the current Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) hospital reimbursement system. Questions/purposes: The purposes of the current study were to (1) determine revenue, expenses, and profitability (loss) for TKA for all patients and for different payors; (2) define changes in utilization and unit costs associated with this operation; and (3) describe TKA cost control strategies to provide insight for hospitals to improve their economic results for TKA. Results: From 1991 to 2009, Lahey Clinic converted a $2172 loss per case on primary TKA in 1991 to a $2986 profit per case in 2008. The improved economics was associated with decreasing revenue in inflation-adjusted dollars and implementation of hospital cost control programs that reduced hospital expenses for TKA. Reduction of hospital length of stay and reduction of knee implant costs were the major drivers of hospital expense reduction. Conclusions: During the last 25 years, our economic experience with TKA is concerning. Hospital revenues have lagged behind inflation, hospital expenses have been reduced, and our institution is earning a profit. However, the margin for TKA is decreasing and Managed Medicare patients do not generate a profit. The erosion of hospital revenue for TKA will become a critical issue if it leads to economic losses for hospitals or reduced access to TKA. Level of Evidence: Level III, Economic and Decision Analyses. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. © 2010 The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons®.
Burns D.L.,Lahey Clinic Medical Center |
Gill B.M.,Lahey Clinic Medical Center
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition | Year: 2013
Patients with intestinal failure and short bowel syndrome usually require chronic parenteral nutrition (PN). PN is associated with risks, including infections, vascular thrombosis, and liver disease. PN-associated liver disease (PNALD) can progress from steatosis to chronic hepatitis and ultimately to cirrhosis. The etiology of PNALD is not completely understood. Therapies for PNALD include carbohydrate or lipid calorie reduction, antibiotics, or the use of ursodeoxycholic acid. When these efforts fail, therapeutic options are limited and liver transplantation may be required. The transition from a soybean- to a fish oil-based lipid formulation, such as the ω-3 parenteral lipid formulation (Omegaven), has shown a dramatic reversal of PNALD within the pediatric population. This is the first report of a PN-dependent adult in the United States complicated by PNALD and hepatic failure who had improvement of liver disease with an ω-3 fish oil-based parenteral formulation. © 2012 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
Buckley J.C.,Lahey Clinic Medical Center
Current Opinion in Urology | Year: 2011
Purpose of review: With the discovery of prostate-specific antigen and routine prostate cancer screening, came a renewed interest in the radical prostatectomy. As a result of early detection, the majority of prostate cancer is of low risk placing more emphasis on the social consequences of the surgery such as urinary incontinence, anastomotic contracture, erectile dysfunction and rectourethral fistula (RUF) formation. This review is specifically focused on the current approaches to anastomotic stricture and RUF following radical prostatectomy. Recent findings: A subset of anastomotic contractures following radical prostatectomy are recurrent and refractory to standard endoscopic therapy. Previous enthusiasm for permanent urethral stents has been dissipated by long-term results showing high revision and complication rates. In an attempt to avoid permanent urethral stents, new adjunctive agents are being used in combination with urethrotomy to achieve a stable, bladder neck anastomosis. There has been a major shift in the cause of RUF from primarily surgical to approximately 50% resulting from radiation/ablation therapy. Surgically induced RUF typically are small, located in bladder neck/trigonal region and can be primarily closed. Radiation/ablation induced fistula are large (>2 cm), involve the prostatic urethra and are fibrotic often requiring a combination of onlay grafting and interposition muscle flap for closure. The anterior, perineal sphincter-sparing approach is the optimal approach for closure of all RUF (simple or complex). Summary: Recent advancements in these two challenging patient populations have allowed reconstructive urologists to remain committed to rehabilitating the lower urinary tract avoiding palliative maneuvers and often-unnecessary urinary and fecal diversion. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Cheah Y.L.,Lahey Clinic Medical Center |
Simpson M.A.,Lahey Clinic Medical Center |
Pomposelli J.J.,Lahey Clinic Medical Center |
Pomfret E.A.,Lahey Clinic Medical Center
Liver Transplantation | Year: 2013
The incidence of morbidity and mortality after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is not well understood because reporting is not standardized and relies on single-center reports. Aborted hepatectomies (AHs) and potentially life-threatening near-miss events (during which a donor's life may be in danger but after which there are no long-term sequelae) are rarely reported. We conducted a worldwide survey of programs performing LDLT to determine the incidence of these events. A survey instrument was sent to 148 programs performing LDLT. The programs were asked to provide donor demographics, case volumes, and information about graft types, operative morbidity and mortality, near-miss events, and AHs. Seventy-one programs (48%), which performed donor hepatectomy 11,553 times and represented 21 countries, completed the survey. The average donor morbidity rate was 24%, with 5 donors (0.04%) requiring transplantation. The donor mortality rate was 0.2% (23/11,553), with the majority of deaths occurring within 60 days, and all but 4 deaths were related to the donation surgery. The incidences of near-miss events and AH were 1.1% and 1.2%, respectively. Program experience did not affect the incidence of donor morbidity or mortality, but near-miss events and AH were more likely in low-volume programs (≤50 LDLT procedures). In conclusion, it appears that independently of program experience, there is a consistent donor mortality rate of 0.2% associated with LDLT donor procedures, yet increased experience is associated with lower rates of AH and near-miss events. Potentially life-threatening near-miss events and AH are underappreciated complications that must be discussed as part of the informed consent process with any potential living liver donor. © 2012 AASLD. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Alroumi F.,Lahey Clinic Medical Center
Hospital practice (1995) | Year: 2012
Ventilator-associated pneumonia is associated with significant patient morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. In the current economic climate, it is crucial to implement cost-effective prevention strategies that have proven efficacy. Multiple prevention measures have been proposed by various expert panels. Global strategies have focused on infection control, and reduction of lower airway colonization with bacterial pathogens, intubation, duration of mechanical ventilation, and length of stay in the intensive care unit. Routine use of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement ventilator care bundle is widespread, and has been clearly demonstrated to be an effective method for reducing the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. In this article, we examine specific aspects of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement bundle, better-designed endotracheal tubes, use of antibiotics and probiotics, and treatment of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia.