Lady Irwin College

Delhi, India

Lady Irwin College

Delhi, India

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Vemula S.R.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research | Gavaravarapu S.M.,Extension and Training Division | Mendu V.V.R.,Bio Statistics Division | Mathur P.,Lady Irwin College
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2014

Objective: To study consumer knowledge and use of food labels. Design: A cross-sectional study employing both quantitative and qualitative methods. Intercept interviews were conducted with 1832 consumers at supermarket sites selected using a stratified random sampling procedure. This information was triangulated with twenty-one focus group discussions. Setting: New Delhi and Hyderabad, two metro-cities from north and south India. Subjects: Adolescent (10-19 years), adult (20-59 years) and elderly (≥60 years) consumers. Results: While the national urban literacy rate is 84 %, about 99 % of the study participants were educated. About 45 % reported that they buy pre-packaged foods once weekly and about a fifth buy them every day. Taste, quality, convenience and ease of use are the main reasons for buying pre-packaged foods. Although 90 % of consumers across the age groups read food labels, the majority (81 %) looked only for the manufacturing date or expiry/best before date. Of those who read labels, only a third checked nutrition information and ingredients. Nutrient information on labels was not often read because most consumers either lacked nutrition knowledge or found the information too technical to understand. About 60 % read quality symbols. A positive association was found between education level and checking various aspects of food labels. Women and girls concerned about 'fat' and 'sugar' intake read the nutrition facts panel. Conclusions: The intention of promoting healthy food choices through use of food labels is not being completely met. Since a majority of people found it difficult to comprehend nutrition information, there is a need to take up educational activities and/or introduce new forms of labelling. Copyright © The Authors 2013.


Misra A.,Fortis Hospital | Misra A.,Center for Diabetes | Misra A.,Diabetes Foundation | Singhal N.,Lady Irwin College | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition | Year: 2010

Developing countries are undergoing rapid nutrition transition concurrent with increases in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). From a healthy traditional high-fiber, low-fat, lowcalorie diet, a shift is occurring toward increasing consumption of calorie-dense foods containing refined carbohydrates, fats, red meats, and low fiber. Data show an increase in the supply of animal fats and increased intake of saturated fatty acid (SFAs) (obtained from coconut oil, palm oil, and ghee [clarified butter]) in many developing countries, particularly in South Asia and South-East Asia. In some South Asian populations, particularly among vegetarians, intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (obtained from flaxseed, mustard, and canola oils) and long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFAs (obtained from fish and fish oils) is low. Further, the effect of supplementation of n-3 PUFAs on metabolic risk factors and insulin resistance, except for demonstrated benefit in terms of decreased triglycerides, needs further investigation among South Asians. Data also show that intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) ranged from 4.7% to 16.4%en in developing countries, and supplementing it from olive, canola, mustard, groundnut, and rice bran oils may reduce metabolic risk. In addition, in some developing countries, intake of n-6 PUFAs (obtained from sunflower, safflower, corn, soybean, and sesame oils) and trans-fatty acids (TFAs) is increasing. These data show imbalanced consumption of fats and oils in developing countries, which may have potentially deleterious metabolic and glycemic consequences, although more research is needed. In view of the rapid rise of T2DM in developing countries, more aggressive public health awareness programs coupled with governmental action and clear country-specific guidelines are required, so as to promote widespread use of healthy oils, thus curbing intake of SFAs and TFAs, and increasing intake of n-3 PUFAs and MUFAs. Such actions would contribute to decelerating further escalation of ''epidemics'' of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and T2DM in developing countries.


Sharma S.,Tata Energy Research Institute | Sharma S.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Sharma P.,TERI University | Khare M.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Kwatra S.,Lady Irwin College
Sustainable Environment Research | Year: 2016

This paper analyzes the statistical behavior of the ground level ozone concentrations (GLO) observed at a major traffic intersection in Delhi. Five sets of data, i.e. summer (May to July, high solar radiation data), winter (November to January, low solar radiation data), spring (March to April), autumn (September to October), and the entire year have been used to study the seasonal variation in the statistical behavior of GLO. Appropriate statistical distribution form has been identified from alternative candidate distribution models using the goodness-of-fit methods and parameters have been estimated using the method of maximum likelihood. The yearly, winters, spring, and summer datasets were found to follow the log-normal distribution model, while autumn dataset followed Weibull distribution. Analysis shows that ozone concentrations also show similar statistical behavior like other air pollutants and fit mainly to the log-normal distribution as reported for other pollutants in different studies. The seasonality of the datasets shows higher skewness during summers due to longish tail of the distribution mainly on account of higher photo–chemical activity. The probability density functions corresponding to the five datasets were used to compute the probability of exceedence of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards and return period of violation of standards. The distributions have also been used to classify the study region under various air quality descriptor categories. The region is found to violate the air quality compliance criteria 17% of the recorded times in the year. Alternative measures have been discussed to reduce the precursor emissions in order to achieve the air quality goals. © 2016 Chinese Institute of Environmental Engineering, Taiwan


Gogoi N.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Rastogi D.,Lady Irwin College | Jassal M.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Agrawal A.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Journal of the Textile Institute | Year: 2014

The benzoxazine monomers, 3-tert-butyl-3,4-dihydro-8-allyl-2H-1,3-benzoxazine (Benz-m) and 2,2-bis(3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,3-benzoxazinyl) propane (Benz-b) were synthesized successfully using Mannich reaction. The formation of the monomer was confirmed by 1H NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. Both the monomers were coated onto cotton fabric and the fabric samples were then dried at 60°C and cured at 120°C for varying time period. During the curing process, monomer was converted to polybenzoxazine by ring-opening polymerization of oxazine ring. In the Raman spectra, presence of the characteristic absorption bands due to benzoxazine structure at 952, at 1037 and at 1348 cm-1 even after curing at 120°C for 2 h, suggested incomplete ring opening of benzoxazine to form polybenzoxazine. Also, the lack of durability of the finish to washing appears be due to the mild conditions of curing. Therefore, the application of Benz-b monomer was investigated on polyester (PET) fabric, which could be subjected to higher temperature however for shorter duration. The water and oil (ethylene glycol) repellency was measured to determine the hydrophobicity and oleophobicity of the finish on PET fabric. It was found that there was a marked improvement in the durability to laundry when compared with the treated cotton samples. This study provides a unique and easy method to prepare a low-surface-energy material through a simple thermal treatment procedure without using fluoro polymers or silicones. © 2014 © 2014 The Textile Institute.


Panda P.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Rastogi D.,Lady Irwin College | Jassal M.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Agrawal A.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2012

Wool fabrics were treated with atmospheric pressure helium glow discharge plasma in an attempt to improve felting and dyeing behavior with cold brand reactive dyes using cold pad-batch method at neutral pH. On glow plasma treatment, the hydrophilicity of wool surface and its resistance toward felting was greatly improved without any significant damage to the cuticle layer. The color strength of the plasma treated dyed wool on the surface (in terms of K/S) was found to be nearly double of the color strength of dyed untreated wool fabric. However, the corresponding total dye uptake of the treated wool increased by a much lower value of 40%-50%. The reason behind this altered dyeing behavior was investigated by studying the dye kinetics using infinite bath and surface characteristics using SEM and SIMS. It was found that the glow plasma treatment greatly transformed the chemical surface of the wool fibers. It resulted in uniform removal of hydrophobic cuticular layer, which resulted in better diffusion of the dye molecules into the fiber, and formation of hydrophilic -NH 2 groups near the surface, which helped in anchoring the dye molecules close to the surface giving higher color strength than expected. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Shivaji Biranje S.,Institute of Chemical Technology | Nathany A.,Institute of Chemical Technology | Mehra N.,Lady Irwin College | Adivarekar R.,Institute of Chemical Technology
Journal of Surfactants and Detergents | Year: 2015

Artificially soiled test fabrics are widely used to study the cleaning performance of detergents formulations. In this study, artificial soiled cotton test fabrics were prepared in the laboratory using carbon black as a model soil. Design of experiments was used to optimise the concentration of detergent ingredients for stain removal. A multi-factorial analysis of variance was used to model the effect of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, nonylphenol ethoxylate, sodium silicate, sodium citrate and sodium carbonate as builders on soil removal. A colourimetric evaluation using the CIELAB system was used to measure soil removal. In general, performance increases with increasing concentration of surfactant, silicate and soda ash. © 2015 AOCS.


Shrivastav M.,Lady Irwin College | Thomas S.,Lady Irwin College
Indian Pediatrics | Year: 2010

We conducted this school based cross-sectional study to assess the snack consumption pattern of 702 adolescent girls (11-14 years) in nine government schools selected from three districts of Delhi. The results indicated high preference for snacks. Parents and teachers were identified as the most influential factors determining their food choices.


Singhal N.,Lady Irwin College | Siddhu A.,Lady Irwin College
Journal of Physical Activity and Health | Year: 2014

Background: The relationship between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is not clearly understood in Indian men. It is important to elucidate whether the duration or intensity of LTPA is responsible for increasing CRF. This will help in designing better physical activity intervention strategies for improving CRF in Indian men. Methods: Healthy nondiabetic urban Indian men with no history of coronary heart disease (CHD) were selected (n = 603; aged 22-64 years) and their energy intake and physical activity was determined using a questionnaire. Body fat (percent) was determined by leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis while CRF was measured on multistage, continuous treadmill test using Bruce protocol. Results: Intensity of physical activity (METs) emerged as the best independent predictor of CRF (β = 0.217; P < .001). Using univariate General Linear Model, it was found that CRF is more a function of LTPA intensity than LTPA duration, since LTPA duration was not related to CRF when controlled for LTPA intensity. However, LTPA intensity remained significantly associated with CRF even after adjustment for LTPA duration. Conclusion: LTPA of preferably higher intensity should be incorporated in the lifestyle to improve CRF and prevent CHD in Indian men. © 2014 Human Kinetics, Inc..


PubMed | Lady Irwin College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition | Year: 2013

A study was conducted to estimate the glycaemic index (GI) of four isocaloric and equicarbohydrate variations of the snack food cheela (a savoury pancake) made from powdered whole legumes Phaseolus aureus (green gram) and Cicer arierinum (sengai gram) and their respective fermented batters. Fifteen healthy, normal weight females aged 18-23 years comprised the sample. Glucose was used as a reference food. The test meals were given within 4 weeks of reference food administration, with at least 2 days interval between the test meals. The meals and reference food were served at a fixed time in the morning, after a 12-h overnight fast. Blood glucose was estimated at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after eating using an Ames glucometer II. The GI for the test meals ranged from 36% to 45%. The green gram cheela (unfermented) had the lowest Gl (36 0.6%), peak blood sugar value (111 .6 1.5 mg%) and AUC (2319 72) as compared to the other three products. There was no significant difference between the fermented and the corresponding unfermented preparations.


PubMed | Lady Irwin College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of physical activity & health | Year: 2014

The relationship between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is not clearly understood in Indian men. It is important to elucidate whether the duration or intensity of LTPA is responsible for increasing CRF. This will help in designing better physical activity intervention strategies for improving CRF in Indian men.Healthy nondiabetic urban Indian men with no history of coronary heart disease (CHD) were selected (n = 603; aged 22-64 years) and their energy intake and physical activity was determined using a questionnaire. Body fat (percent) was determined by leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis while CRF was measured on multistage, continuous treadmill test using Bruce protocol.Intensity of physical activity (METs) emerged as the best independent predictor of CRF ( = 0.217; P < .001). Using univariate General Linear Model, it was found that CRF is more a function of LTPA intensity than LTPA duration, since LTPA duration was not related to CRF when controlled for LTPA intensity. However, LTPA intensity remained significantly associated with CRF even after adjustment for LTPA duration.LTPA of preferably higher intensity should be incorporated in the lifestyle to improve CRF and prevent CHD in Indian men.

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