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New Delhi, India

Shivaji Biranje S.,Institute of Chemical Technology | Nathany A.,Institute of Chemical Technology | Mehra N.,Lady Irwin College | Adivarekar R.,Institute of Chemical Technology
Journal of Surfactants and Detergents | Year: 2015

Artificially soiled test fabrics are widely used to study the cleaning performance of detergents formulations. In this study, artificial soiled cotton test fabrics were prepared in the laboratory using carbon black as a model soil. Design of experiments was used to optimise the concentration of detergent ingredients for stain removal. A multi-factorial analysis of variance was used to model the effect of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, nonylphenol ethoxylate, sodium silicate, sodium citrate and sodium carbonate as builders on soil removal. A colourimetric evaluation using the CIELAB system was used to measure soil removal. In general, performance increases with increasing concentration of surfactant, silicate and soda ash. © 2015 AOCS.

Misra A.,Fortis Hospital | Misra A.,Center for Diabetes | Singhal N.,Lady Irwin College | Singhal N.,University of Delhi | Khurana L.,Center for Diabetes
Journal of the American College of Nutrition | Year: 2010

Developing countries are undergoing rapid nutrition transition concurrent with increases in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). From a healthy traditional high-fiber, low-fat, lowcalorie diet, a shift is occurring toward increasing consumption of calorie-dense foods containing refined carbohydrates, fats, red meats, and low fiber. Data show an increase in the supply of animal fats and increased intake of saturated fatty acid (SFAs) (obtained from coconut oil, palm oil, and ghee [clarified butter]) in many developing countries, particularly in South Asia and South-East Asia. In some South Asian populations, particularly among vegetarians, intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (obtained from flaxseed, mustard, and canola oils) and long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFAs (obtained from fish and fish oils) is low. Further, the effect of supplementation of n-3 PUFAs on metabolic risk factors and insulin resistance, except for demonstrated benefit in terms of decreased triglycerides, needs further investigation among South Asians. Data also show that intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) ranged from 4.7% to 16.4%en in developing countries, and supplementing it from olive, canola, mustard, groundnut, and rice bran oils may reduce metabolic risk. In addition, in some developing countries, intake of n-6 PUFAs (obtained from sunflower, safflower, corn, soybean, and sesame oils) and trans-fatty acids (TFAs) is increasing. These data show imbalanced consumption of fats and oils in developing countries, which may have potentially deleterious metabolic and glycemic consequences, although more research is needed. In view of the rapid rise of T2DM in developing countries, more aggressive public health awareness programs coupled with governmental action and clear country-specific guidelines are required, so as to promote widespread use of healthy oils, thus curbing intake of SFAs and TFAs, and increasing intake of n-3 PUFAs and MUFAs. Such actions would contribute to decelerating further escalation of ''epidemics'' of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and T2DM in developing countries.

Vemula S.R.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research | Gavaravarapu S.M.,Extension and Training Division | Mendu V.V.R.,Bio Statistics Division | Mathur P.,Lady Irwin College
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2014

Objective: To study consumer knowledge and use of food labels. Design: A cross-sectional study employing both quantitative and qualitative methods. Intercept interviews were conducted with 1832 consumers at supermarket sites selected using a stratified random sampling procedure. This information was triangulated with twenty-one focus group discussions. Setting: New Delhi and Hyderabad, two metro-cities from north and south India. Subjects: Adolescent (10-19 years), adult (20-59 years) and elderly (≥60 years) consumers. Results: While the national urban literacy rate is 84 %, about 99 % of the study participants were educated. About 45 % reported that they buy pre-packaged foods once weekly and about a fifth buy them every day. Taste, quality, convenience and ease of use are the main reasons for buying pre-packaged foods. Although 90 % of consumers across the age groups read food labels, the majority (81 %) looked only for the manufacturing date or expiry/best before date. Of those who read labels, only a third checked nutrition information and ingredients. Nutrient information on labels was not often read because most consumers either lacked nutrition knowledge or found the information too technical to understand. About 60 % read quality symbols. A positive association was found between education level and checking various aspects of food labels. Women and girls concerned about 'fat' and 'sugar' intake read the nutrition facts panel. Conclusions: The intention of promoting healthy food choices through use of food labels is not being completely met. Since a majority of people found it difficult to comprehend nutrition information, there is a need to take up educational activities and/or introduce new forms of labelling. Copyright © The Authors 2013.

Chhabra J.,University of Delhi | Suri M.,Lady Irwin College | Parmar M.S.,Northern India Textile Research Association
Asian Textile Journal | Year: 2010

There is revival of interest in organic cotton and naturally colored cotton without recourse to dyeing using harmful and polluting chemicals. Naturally colored cotton totally eliminates the process of coloration as this cotton has a colored gene present in the lumen of the fibre that imparts natural color to cotton as it grows and matures. Growers of naturally colored cotton may find less need for pesticides. Colored cottons have many insect and disease-resistant qualities and are drought and salt tolerant. Naturally-colored cotton is inherently flame retardant as the Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) value of naturally colored cotton is higher than conventional white cotton. Cotton farmers at Coimbatore are showing keen interest in cultivating naturally colored cotton. This may lead to a ten-fold increase in the cultivating area which presently stands at around 700 acres. The research station at Gulbarga, Karnataka has already come out with brown and green cotton.

Gogoi N.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Rastogi D.,Lady Irwin College | Jassal M.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Agrawal A.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Journal of the Textile Institute | Year: 2014

The benzoxazine monomers, 3-tert-butyl-3,4-dihydro-8-allyl-2H-1,3-benzoxazine (Benz-m) and 2,2-bis(3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,3-benzoxazinyl) propane (Benz-b) were synthesized successfully using Mannich reaction. The formation of the monomer was confirmed by 1H NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. Both the monomers were coated onto cotton fabric and the fabric samples were then dried at 60°C and cured at 120°C for varying time period. During the curing process, monomer was converted to polybenzoxazine by ring-opening polymerization of oxazine ring. In the Raman spectra, presence of the characteristic absorption bands due to benzoxazine structure at 952, at 1037 and at 1348 cm-1 even after curing at 120°C for 2 h, suggested incomplete ring opening of benzoxazine to form polybenzoxazine. Also, the lack of durability of the finish to washing appears be due to the mild conditions of curing. Therefore, the application of Benz-b monomer was investigated on polyester (PET) fabric, which could be subjected to higher temperature however for shorter duration. The water and oil (ethylene glycol) repellency was measured to determine the hydrophobicity and oleophobicity of the finish on PET fabric. It was found that there was a marked improvement in the durability to laundry when compared with the treated cotton samples. This study provides a unique and easy method to prepare a low-surface-energy material through a simple thermal treatment procedure without using fluoro polymers or silicones. © 2014 © 2014 The Textile Institute.

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