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Banfield B.W.,Kingston University | Mouland A.J.,Lady Davis Institute at the Jewish General Hospital | Mouland A.J.,McGill University | McCormick C.,Dalhousie University
Viruses | Year: 2014

In recent years, important linkages have been made between RNA granules and human disease processes. On June 8-10 of this year, we hosted a new symposium, dubbed the 1st International Symposium on Stress-Associated RNA Granules in Human Disease and Viral Infection. This symposium brought together experts from diverse research disciplines ranging from cancer and neuroscience to infectious disease. This report summarizes speaker presentations and highlights current challenges in the field. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Monette A.,Lady Davis Institute at the Jewish General Hospital | Monette A.,McGill University | Valiente-Echeverria F.,Lady Davis Institute at the Jewish General Hospital | Valiente-Echeverria F.,McGill University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The precursor group-specific antigen (pr55Gag) is central to HIV-1 assembly. Its expression alone is sufficient to assemble into virus-like particles. It also selects the genomic RNA for encapsidation and is involved in several important virus-host interactions for viral assembly and restriction, making its synthesis essential for aspects of viral replication. Here, we show that the initiation of translation of the HIV-1 genomic RNA is mediated through both a cap-dependent and an internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated mechanisms. In support of this notion, pr55Gag synthesis was maintained at 70% when cap-dependent translation initiation was blocked by the expression of eIF4G- and PABP targeting viral proteases in two in vitro systems and in HIV-1-expressing cells directly infected with poliovirus. While our data reveal that IRES-dependent translation of the viral genomic RNA ensures pr55Gag expression, the synthesis of other HIV-1 proteins, including that of pr160Gag/Pol, Vpr and Tat is suppressed early during progressive poliovirus infection. The data presented herein implies that the unspliced HIV-1 genomic RNA utilizes both cap-dependent and IRES-dependent translation initiation to supply pr55Gag for virus assembly and production. © 2013 Monette et al. Source

Le Sage V.,Lady Davis Institute at the Jewish General Hospital | Cinti A.,Lady Davis Institute at the Jewish General Hospital | Cinti A.,McGill University | Mouland A.J.,Lady Davis Institute at the Jewish General Hospital | Mouland A.J.,McGill University
Trends in Microbiology | Year: 2015

Production of infectious HIV-1 particles requires viral envelope (Env) glycoprotein incorporation. Although, the precise mechanism remains elusive, interaction between Env and the matrix (MA) domain of Gag plays a central role. Work by Mu and colleagues demonstrates how the Env-MA interaction regulates gag mRNA stability and Gag expression levels. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Valiente-Echeverria F.,University of Santiago de Chile | Vallejos M.,University of Santiago de Chile | Monette A.,Lady Davis Institute at the Jewish General Hospital | Monette A.,McGill University | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Translation initiation from the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) mRNA can occur through a cap or an IRES dependent mechanism. Cap-dependent translation initiation of the HIV-1 mRNA can be inhibited by the instability element (INS)-1, a cis-acting regulatory element present within the gag open reading frame (ORF). In this study we evaluated the impact of the INS-1 on HIV-1 IRES-mediated translation initiation. Using heterologous bicistronic mRNAs, we show that the INS-1 negatively impact on HIV-1 IRES-driven translation in in vitro and in cell-based experiments. Additionally, our results show that the inhibitory effect of the INS-1 is not general to all IRESes since it does not hinder translation driven by the HCV IRES. The inhibition by the INS-1 was partially rescued in cells by the overexpression of the viral Rev protein or hnRNPA1. © 2013 Valiente-Echeverría et al. Source

Milev M.P.,Lady Davis Institute at the Jewish General Hospital | Milev M.P.,McGill University | Ravichandran M.,Lady Davis Institute at the Jewish General Hospital | Ravichandran M.,McGill University | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2012

The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) unspliced, 9 kb genomic RNA (vRNA) is exported from the nucleus for the synthesis of viral structural proteins and enzymes (Gag and Gag/Pol) and is then transported to sites of virus assembly where it is packaged into progeny virions. vRNA co-exists in the cytoplasm in the context of the HIV-1 ribonucleoprotein (RNP) that is currently defined by the presence of Gag and several host proteins including the double-stranded RNA-binding protein, Staufen1. In this study we isolated Staufen1 RNP complexes derived from HIV-1-expressing cells using tandem affinity purification and have identified multiple host protein components by mass spectrometry. Four viral proteins, including Gag, Gag/Pol, Env and Nef as well as >200 host proteins were identified in these RNPs. Moreover, HIV-1 induces both qualitative and quantitative differences in host protein content in these RNPs. 22% of Staufen1-associated factors are virion-associated suggesting that the RNP could be a vehicle to achieve this. In addition, we provide evidence on how HIV-1 modulates the composition of cytoplasmic Staufen1 RNPs. Biochemical fractionation by density gradient analyses revealed new facets on the assembly of Staufen1 RNPs.The assembly of dense Staufen1 RNPs that contain Gag and several host proteins were found to be entirely RNA-dependent but their assembly appeared to be independent of Gag expression. Gag-containing complexes fractionated into a lighter and another, more dense pool. Lastly, Staufen1 depletion studies demonstrated that the previously characterized Staufen1 HIV-1-dependent RNPs are most likely aggregates of smaller RNPs that accumulate at juxtanuclear domains. The molecular characterization of Staufen1 HIV-1 RNPs will offer important information on virus-host cell interactions and on the elucidation of the function of these RNPs for the transport of Gag and the fate of the unspliced vRNA in HIV-1-producing cells. © 2012 Milev, Ravichandran, Khan, Schriemer and Mouland. Source

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