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Lacombe, Canada

Juarez M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Dugan M.E.R.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Aldai N.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Basarab J.A.,Lacombe Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2012

In order to investigate the effects of increasing beef n-3 fatty acid content and the protective effects of vitamin E antioxidant activity on meat quality characteristics, 80 feedlot steers were fed 4 different diets (control, high vitamin E, 10% ground flaxseed or high vitamin E-10% ground flaxseed). While dietary treatments had no effect (P> 0.05) on meat composition or tenderness values, the increase in oxidation products was lower (P= 0.046) in meat from vitamin E supplemented steers and higher (P= 0.006) in meat from flaxseed fed animals. The increase in α-tocopherol tissue levels (P< 0.001) in meat from animals fed flaxseed and increased dietary vitamin E resulted in the lowest drip loss values (P= 0.013). As expected, display time had a large effect on retail traits in both steaks and patties (P< 0.001). While retail traits of steaks were not affected by the dietary treatments (P> 0.05), feeding flaxseed decreased (P< 0.05) ground beef retail scores, which were not corrected by higher levels of dietary vitamin E. Finally, although no effect (P> 0.05) was observed among treatments for sensory attributes in steaks, the correlations of a combined n-3:α-tocopherol ratio against retail and sensory attributes (P< 0.05) suggest that increased n-3 fatty acids levels require increased dietary antioxidants, such as vitamin E to avoid negative effects on meat quality from a loss in oxidative stability. © 2011.

Menon D.G.,University of British Columbia | Bennett D.C.,University of British Columbia | Schaefer A.L.,Lacombe Research Center | Cheng K.M.,University of British Columbia
Poultry Science | Year: 2014

Many emu farms are located in areas lacking processing facilities that can handle these birds. Thus, long-distance shipping of birds to an abattoir is necessary. Two experiments were conducted, wherein emus were transported in a modified horse trailer for 6 h to an abattoir. Changes in the indices of stress and metabolic homeostasis (hematology, serum biochemistry, enzymes, and body temperature and weight) were used to evaluate the physiological response to transport. The activities of enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase increased significantly (P < 0.001) from pretransport to slaughter, indicating muscle cell wall damages. The body temperature of emus was significantly (P < 0.001) increased from 37.0 to 39.6°C after transport in experiment 1 and from 37.2 to 38.9°C in experiment 2. Transport resulted in significant weight loss in both experiments (P < 0.001; 2.1 ± 0.2 kg vs. 0.6 ± 0.2 kg) and posttransport resting at lairage led to slight regaining (P < 0.01) of BW. Oral administration of supplements before and after transport was effective in protecting against muscle damage and faster recovery of BW losses during lairage. The clinical findings were suggestive of the incidence of exertional rhabdomyolysis and thus underlined the need for careful handling and improved transport conditions of emus. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Li M.,University of Alberta | Zhou M.,University of Alberta | Adamowicz E.,University of Alberta | Basarab J.A.,Lacombe Research Center | Guan L.L.,University of Alberta
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2012

Currently, knowledge regarding the ecology and function of bacteria attached to the epithelial tissue of the rumen wall is limited. In this study, the diversity of the bacterial community attached to the rumen epithelial tissue was compared to the rumen content bacterial community using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, PCR-DGGE, and qRT-PCR analysis. Sequence analysis of 2785 randomly selected clones from six 16S rDNA (~1.4. kb) libraries showed that the community structures of three rumen content libraries clustered together and were separated from the rumen tissue libraries. The diversity index of each library revealed that ruminal content bacterial communities (4.12/4.42/4.88) were higher than ruminal tissue communities (2.90/2.73/3.23), based on 97% similarity. The phylum Firmicutes was predominant in the ruminal tissue communities, while the phylum Bacteroidetes was predominant in the ruminal content communities. The phyla Fibrobacteres, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia were only detected in the ruminal content communities. PCR-DGGE analysis of the bacterial profiles of the rumen content and ruminal epithelial tissue samples from 22 steers further confirmed that there is a distinct bacterial community that inhibits the rumen epithelium. The distinctive epimural bacterial communities suggest that Firmicutes, together with other epithelial-specific species, may have additional functions other than food digestion. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Juarez M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Dugan M.E.R.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Aalhus J.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Aldai N.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 3 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2011

To elucidate the effects of dietary vitamin E with or without flaxseed on beef fatty acid composition, 80 feedlot steers were fed 4 diets: Control-E (451. IU. dl-α-tocopheryl acetate/head/day), Control. +. E (1051. IU. dl-α-tocopheryl acetate/head/day), Flax-E (10% ground) and Flax. +. E. Vitamin E had no effect on animal growth or carcass weight (p> 0.05), while flaxseed-fed steers had greater average daily gain (p= 0.007), final live weight (p= 0.005) and heavier carcasses (p= 0.012). Feeding flaxseed increased the total n-3 fatty acid content of beef and this response was further accentuated by the inclusion of high levels of vitamin E in the diet. Feeding flax increased levels of some 18:3n-3 partial hydrogenation products including c15- and t13/14-18:1 and several 18:2 isomers (p< 0.001) but decreased t10-18:1 (p< 0.001). Vitamin E enhanced intramuscular levels of 18:3n-3 and its biohydrogenation products leading to greater accumulations of total n-3 fatty acids in lean ground beef. The consequences of increasing the concentrations of partially hydrogenated products on human health have yet to be investigated. © 2011.

Basarab J.A.,Lacombe Research Center
Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience | Year: 2013

Genetic selection for residual feed intake (RFI) is an indirect approach for reducing enteric methane (CH4) emissions in beef and dairy cattle. RFI is moderately heritable (0.26 to 0.43), moderately repeatable across diets (0.33 to 0.67) and independent of body size and production, and when adjusted for off-test ultrasound backfat thickness (RFI fat) is also independent of body fatness in growing animals. It is highly dependent on accurate measurement of individual animal feed intake. Within-animal repeatability of feed intake is moderate (0.29 to 0.49) with distinctive diurnal patterns associated with cattle type, diet and genotype, necessitating the recording of feed intake for at least 35 days. In addition, direct measurement of enteric CH4 production will likely be more variable and expensive than measuring feed intake and if conducted should be expressed as CH4 production (g/animal per day) adjusted for body size, growth, body composition and dry matter intake (DMI) or as residual CH4 production. A further disadvantage of a direct CH4 phenotype is that the relationships of enteric CH4 production on other economically important traits are largely unknown. Selection for low RFI fat (efficient, -RFI fat) will result in cattle that consume less dry matter (DMI) and have an improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared with high RFI fat cattle (inefficient; +RFI fat). Few antagonistic effects have been reported for the relationships of RFI fat on carcass and meat quality, fertility, cow lifetime productivity and adaptability to stress or extensive grazing conditions. Low RFI fat cattle also produce 15% to 25% less enteric CH4 than +RFI fat cattle, since DMI is positively related to enteric methane (CH4) production. In addition, lower DMI and feeding duration and frequency, and a different rumen bacterial profile that improves rumen fermentation in -RFI fat cattle may favor a 1% to 2% improvement in dry matter and CP digestibility compared with +RFI fat cattle. Rate of genetic change using this approach is expected to improve feed efficiency and reduce enteric CH4 emissions from cattle by 0.75% to 1.0% per year at equal levels of body size, growth and body fatness compared with cattle not selected for RFI fat.

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