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Grand Rapids, MI, United States

Massaccesi M.,Catholic University | Caravatta L.,Catholic University | Cilla S.,HIGH-TECH | Digesu C.,Catholic University | And 11 more authors.
Tumori | Year: 2010

Aims. To investigate the technical feasibility of utilizing the Active Breathing Coordinator for planning of postoperative three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy in patients with early stage breast cancer undergoing breast conservation therapy. Methods. Patients with early stage breast cancer for whom adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery was planned were consecutively enrolled. Five sessions of simulation with the Active Breathing Coordinator were planned for each patient. Computed tomography for simulation was not acquired until a good level of compliance with the procedure was achieved by the patient. Patients who did not show a satisfactory level of compliance after the planned fifth session were defined as noncompliant. Two simulation computed tomography scans were acquired: the first without the Active Breathing Coordinator during free breathing, the second with the Active Breathing Coordinator. Forward intensity-modulated treatment plans were calculated. Mean lung dose (MLDipsilateral) and V30 (V30 lung) for the ipsilateral lung and V30 for the heart (V30 heart), were evaluated. Results. Twenty consecutive patients were enrolled (6 with left-sided breast cancer and 14 with right-sided breast cancer). Eighteen of the patients completed the simulation computed tomography with the Active Breathing Coordinator after 1-5 sessions (median, 3). In 16 of the 18 patients, a reduction of V30lung was observed with the Active Breathing Coordinator. In 15 of the 18 patients, a reduction of MLD ipsilateral was also observed. In 5 of the 6 patients with left-sided breast cancer, a reduction of V30heart was noted. Conclusions. Routine application of the Active Breathing Coordinator in clinical practice is feasible, even though it requires an increased workload. Dosimetric results are encouraging in terms of a better sparing of the ipsilateral lung and the heart.

MacChia G.,John Paul II University | Ferrandina G.,Catholic University | Ferrandina G.,Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli | Legge F.,Catholic University | And 8 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Oncology: Cancer Clinical Trials | Year: 2010

Introduction: The aim of this phase II study was to evaluate response and toxicity of a prolonged chemoradiation regimen in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. Patients and Methods: Three cycles of concomitant chemotherapy were used with cisplatin (20 mg/m2, 2-hour intravenous infusion, days 1-4) and 5-fluorouracil (1000 mg/m2, 24-hour continuous intravenous infusion, days 1-4) administered at weeks 1, 5, and 9 of radiotherapy. In combination, radiotherapy was delivered to a planning target volume (PTV) defined as the CTV (clinical target volume) plus 8 mm. The CTV was defined as follows: gross tumor volume, upper half of the vagina (if not involved) or the whole vagina (if clinically involved), uterus, obturator nodes, external iliac nodes, internal iliac nodes, and the presacral nodes (cranial to S2). The prescribed dose to the PTV was 50 Gy, 2 Gy/fraction (ICRU 62) delivered in 25 fractions with a 2-week break at 20Gy and 40 Gy (split-course technique). Early and late toxicity was assessed according to the RTOG and RTOG/ EORTC toxicity scales. Perioperative toxicity was evaluated according to the Chassagne classification of surgical complications. Results: A total of 25 patients were included in this study. Median age was 52 years (range, 28-69). Clinical stage was: IB2-II: 19 patients (76%), III-IVA: 6 patients (24%). All patients completed the prescribed dose of chemoradiation and were evaluated 4 weeks after the end of treatment. Complete and partial clinical local response was observed in 4 and 19 patients, respectively (totaling 92% of clinical responses). About 32% of patients experienced grade 3 to 4 toxicity, in particular, grade 3 or 4 hematological toxicity was observed in 7 patients and 1 patient developed grade 3 genitourinary toxicity. No patients developed grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity or skin toxicity. Of total, 22 patients (88%) underwent radical hysterectomy. Seven patients (28%) showed a complete response (CR) to treatment, and 7 patients (28%) showed microscopic residual disease (=PR), totaling 14 patients (56%) complete/partial microscopic responses. Perioperative morbidity was higher than reported in historical controls especially in terms of tissue fibrosis (64%) and perioperative urinary toxicity (14%). Actuarial 2-year local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival were 65.5%, 61.8%, and 80.8%, respectively. Conclusion: A prolonged treatment with more chemotherapy courses does not improve tumor response and increases the risk of perioperative complication. This treatment regimen, considering the low incidence of acute gastrointestinal toxicity, might be tested in the adjuvant setting. © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Caravatta L.,University Cattolica Del ore | Deodato F.,University Cattolica Del ore | Ferro M.,University Cattolica Del ore | Macchia G.,University Cattolica Del ore | And 14 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Oncology: Cancer Clinical Trials | Year: 2015

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of a SHort-course Accelerated RadiatiON therapy (SHARON) in the treatment of patients with multiple brain metastases. Materials and Methods: A phase II clinical trial was designed. Eligibility criteria included patients with at least 3 brain metastases or metastatic disease in >3 organ systems, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of ≤3. Fifty patients were treated with whole brain radiotherapy at 18 Gy (4.5 Gy per fraction) in 2 days with a twice daily fractionation. The primary endpoint was the assessment of efficacy in terms of overall survival. Results: Characteristics of the 50 enrolled patients were: male/female: 24/26; median age: 65 years (range, 45 to 80 y). Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was <3 in 42 patients (84%). Nineteen patients (38%) were considered to have recursive partitioning analysis class 3 disease. Grade 1-2 acute neurological (46%) and skin (24%) toxicities were recorded. Three patients (6%) experienced neurological grade 3 acute toxicity. With a median follow-up time of 6 months (range, 1 to 18 mo) 2 skin grade 1 late toxicities has been observed. Seventeen of 27 symptomatic patients showed an improvement or resolution of baseline symptoms (overall palliative response rate: 63.0%; 95% confidence interval, 36.6%-82.4%).Two-month overall survival was 86% (median survival time=7 mo). Conclusions: Short-course accelerated whole brain radiotherapy of 18 Gy in twice daily fractions for 2 consecutive days is tolerated and effective in terms of symptom relief and median survival time. These results justify a phase III comparison against the standard-of-care in this patient population (30 Gy in 10 fractions). © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Massaccesi M.,Radiation Oncology Unit | Deodato F.,Radiation Oncology Unit | Caravatta L.,Radiation Oncology Unit | MacChia G.,Radiation Oncology Unit | And 14 more authors.
Clinical Journal of Pain | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVES: The incidence of noncancer pain (NCP) in cancer patients is unknown. An analysis of incidence, severity, impact on quality of life (QoL), and appropriateness of NCP treatment in a cohort of cancer patients referred to a radiotherapy center is reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pain was scored from 0 (absence) to 3 (severe) and the adequacy of analgesic therapy was evaluated according to International Guidelines. Correlation between Pain Management Index and World Health Organization Analgesic Ladder was used to analyze the appropriateness of NCP treatment. In addition, pain was differentiated according to its origin and types and a comparison was performed between cancer pain (CP) and NCP. RESULTS: A total of 903 patients were eligible and 865 (95.8%) were considered evaluable. Three hundred ninety-eight patients (46.0%) had pain. CP and NCP pain incidence was 11.2% and 34.8%, respectively. Pain intensity was higher in patients with CP versus NCP (P=0.021). A neuropathic pain lower incidence (P=0.024) in NCP versus CP was recorded. Moreover, NCP was more inadequately treated than CP (P<0.001). QoL was significantly lower in patients with NCP when compared with patients without pain (P<0.001). In addition, QoL of patients with CP was significantly lower than QoL of patients with NCP (P<0.001). DISCUSSION: In a cancer patients' population referred to a radiotherapy center, the NCP incidence was higher than the CP incidence and NCP intensity was only slightly lower than CP. NCP was significantly pharmacologically undertreated and it was related to a decline in QoL. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Caravatta L.,John Paul II University | Picardi V.,John Paul II University | Tambaro R.,John Paul II University | Padula G.D.A.,Lacks Cancer Center Saint Marys Health Care | And 12 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Oncology: Cancer Clinical Trials | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVES: To determine the maximal and safely dose of preoperative radiotherapy and concurrently intensified chemotherapy regimen (raltitrexed plus oxaliplatin) in locally advanced rectal cancer patients. METHODS: Patients with cT3-T4 and/or cN≥1 or locally recurrent rectal cancer were sequentially assigned to 4 treatment schedules of chemoradiation: standard radiotherapy (50.4 Gy/5.5 wk) plus raltitrexed (cohort A), accelerated radiotherapy (55 Gy/5 wk) plus raltitrexed (cohort B), standard radiotherapy plus raltitrexed and oxaliplatin (cohort C), accelerated radiotherapy plus raltitrexed and oxaliplatin (cohort D). Patients were treated in cohorts of 6 to 12 per group. The maximal tolerated dose was exceeded if more than one-third of patients in a given cohort experienced dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). DLT was defined as any grade ≥3 toxicity according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. RESULTS: Forty-six consecutive patients were enrolled. In cohort A, 6 patients received the planned treatment with no DLT. In cohort B, 1 of 8 patients experienced a DLT. In cohort C, a DLT occurred in 2 of 6 patients and therefore, a cohort expansion was required. Three of 16 patients treated at this dose level experienced a DLT. In addition, cohort D was expanded and DLT was found in 4 of 16 patients. Therefore, the maximal tolerated dose was not exceeded at any treatment level. CONCLUSIONS: An intensified regimen of chemoradiotherapy delivering raltitrexed and oxaliplatin concurrently with concomitant boost radiotherapy (55 Gy/5 wk) can be safely administered in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. On the basis of these results, this intensified regimen could be tested in a phase II study. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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