Labour Institute for Economic Research

Helsinki, Finland

Labour Institute for Economic Research

Helsinki, Finland
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Bockerman P.,Labour Institute for Economic Research | Johansson E.,Åland University of Applied Sciences | Saarni S.I.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Saarni S.I.,University of Helsinki | Saarni S.E.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare
Journal of Happiness Studies | Year: 2014

In this paper we examine whether health status and functional capacity explain the fact that obese individuals report significantly lower levels of subjective well-being. We use comprehensive measures of body composition such as waist circumference, body fat percentage, and lean body mass along with body mass index. All these are measured by health professionals in a population-based sample. When controlling for health and functional status, we find very limited evidence for any independent influence of obesity on subjective well-being. This implies that the adverse effects of obesity on health and functioning are the primary explanation for the observed negative relationship between obesity and subjective well-being. © 2013, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Bockerman P.,Labour Institute for Economic Research and IZA | Hyytinen A.,University of Jyväskylä | Maczulskij T.,Labour Institute for Economic Research
Health Economics (United Kingdom) | Year: 2017

This paper examines whether alcohol consumption is related to long-term labor market outcomes. We use twin data for Finnish men and women matched to register-based individual information on employment and earnings. The twin data allow us to account for the shared environmental and genetic factors. The quantity of alcohol consumption was measured by weekly average consumption using self-reported data from three surveys (1975, 1981 and 1990). The average of an individual's employment months and earnings were measured in adulthood over the period 1990–2009. The models that account for the shared environmental and genetic factors reveal that former drinkers and heavy drinkers both have almost 20% lower earnings compared with moderate drinkers. On average, former drinkers work annually approx. 1 month less over the 20-year observation period. These associations are robust to the use of covariates, such as education, pre-existing health endowment and smoking. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Bockerman P.,Labour Institute for Economic Research and IZA | Hyytinen A.,University of Jyväskylä | Maczulskij T.,Labour Institute for Economic Research
Preventive Medicine | Year: 2016

Objectives: To examine whether alcohol consumption in adulthood is related to the incidence of receiving a disability pension later in life. Methods: Twin data for Finnish men and women born before 1958 were matched to register-based individual information on disability pensions. Twin differences were used to eliminate both shared environmental and genetic factors. The quantity of alcohol consumption was measured as the weekly average consumption using self-reported data from three surveys (1975, 1981 and 1990). The disability pension data were evaluated from 1990-2004. Results: The models that account for shared environmental and genetic factors reveal that heavy drinkers are significantly more likely to receive a disability pension than moderate drinkers or constant abstainers. Heavy drinking that leads to passing out is also positively related to receiving a disability pension. The results were robust to the use of potential confounders that twins do not share, such as education years, the number of chronic diseases, physical activity at work and leisure, and stressful life events. Conclusion: Drinking profiles in early adulthood are an important predictor of receiving a disability pension later in life. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Kanninen O.,Labour Institute for Economic Research | Karhula A.,University of Turku
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

The human sex ratio at birth (SRB) is approximately 107 boys for every 100 girls. SRB was rising until the World War II and has been declining slightly after the 1950s in several industrial countries. Recent studies have shown that SRB varies according to exposure to disasters and socioeconomic conditions. However, it remains unknown whether changes in SRB can be explained by observable macro-level socioeconomic variables across multiple years and countries. Here we show that changes in disposable income at the macro level positively predict SRB in OECD countries. A one standard deviation increase in the change of disposable income is associated with an increase of 1.03 male births per 1000 female births. The relationship is possibly nonlinear and driven by extreme changes. The association varies from country to country being particular strong in Estonia. This is the first evidence to show that economic and social conditions are connected to SRB across countries at the macro level. This calls for further research on the effects of societal conditions on general characteristics at birth. © 2016 Kanninen, Karhula. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Sauramo P.,Labour Institute for Economic Research | Maliranta M.,Research Institute of the Finnish economics ETLA | Maliranta M.,University of Jyväskylä
Structural Change and Economic Dynamics | Year: 2011

In this paper, structural change in the Finnish manufacturing industries is studied using the theory of the aggregation of production functions and longitudinal plant-level data for the period from 1980 to 2005. To characterise the nature of structural change in 12 industries, we examine the invariance of aggregate production functions over time. Aggregate production functions need not be estimated because, according to the theory of the aggregation of production functions, the invariance can be analysed by investigating the stability of capacity density functions, which describe the distribution of value added in these industries. Even though the shapes of aggregate production functions alter over time in most industries, there are differences in timing and in the degree of turbulence across industries. The analysis confirms that in some industries (e.g., the paper industry) the late 1980s marked the beginning of a period of relatively strong structural change. The food and communications equipment manufacturing industries are examples of industries for which the 1990s was a period of turbulence. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Bockerman P.,Labour Institute for Economic Research | Johansson E.,Åland University of Applied Sciences | Saarni S.I.,University of Helsinki
Ageing and Society | Year: 2012

In this paper we examine whether there are systematic differences in the quality of life, depending on whether an individual is institutionalised or not, holding health status and income level constant. In doing this we use a nationally representative data set, the Health 2000 in Finland. When controlling for health and functional status, demographics and income level, we find that individuals who are living in old-age homes actually report significantly higher levels of subjective wellbeing than those who are living at home. We argue that this finding emerges from queuing for care homes. This implies that there are individuals living at home who are so frail that they should really be living in an old-age institution, but because of the queues for that particular mode of living, they are living at home with a decreased quality of life as a consequence. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.


Lehto E.,Labour Institute for Economic Research | Bockerman P.,Labour Institute for Economic Research | Huovari J.,Pellervo Economic Research Institute PTT
Papers in Regional Science | Year: 2011

The paper asks whether R&D's productivity impacts are conditional on the gap of a plant's productivity from the industry's technological frontier. The results show that a plant's own R&D and a parent firm's R&D have a positive productivity impact. The impact of a plant's own R&D decreases as the gap from the industry's technological frontier grows. Furthermore, the productivity impact of other firms' (geographic) distance-weighted R&D is, on average, positive. However, this impact increases as the gap from the technological frontier grows. © 2010 the author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 RSAI.


Bockerman P.,Labour Institute for Economic Research | Laukkanen E.,Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2010

Objective: To examine the predictors of sickness presenteeism in comparison with sickness absenteeism. The article focuses on the effects of working time match and efficiency demands and differentiates the estimates by a respondent's self-assessed health. Methods: We use survey data covering 884 Finnish trade union members in 2009. We estimate logistic regression models. All models include control variables such as the sector of the economy and the type of contract. Results: Working time match between desired and actual weekly working hours reduces both sickness absence and presenteeism for those workers who have poor health. We also find that efficiency demands increase presenteeism for those workers who have good health. Conclusions: The effects of working time match and efficiency demands on the prevalence of sickness absence and presenteeism are strongly conditional on a worker's self-assessed health level. Copyright © 2010 by American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.


Bockerman P.,Labour Institute for Economic Research | Laukkanen E.,Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions
European Journal of Public Health | Year: 2010

Background: Sickness absenteeism has been a focus of the EU Labour Force Surveys since the early 1970s. In contrast, sickness presenteeism is a newcomer. Based on surveys, this concept emerged in the empirical literature as late as the 1990s. Knowledge of the determinants of sickness presenteeism is still relatively sparse. Methods: The article examines the prevalence of sickness presenteeism in comparison with sickness absenteeism, using survey data covering 725 Finnish union members in 2008. We estimate logit models. The predictor variables capture working-time arrangements and the rules at the workplace. We include control variables such as the sector of the economy and educational attainment. Results: Controlling for worker characteristics, we find that sickness presenteeism is much more sensitive to working-time arrangements than sickness absenteeism is. Permanent full-time work, mismatch between desired and actual working hours, shift or period work and overlong working weeks increase sickness presenteeism. We also find an interesting trade-off between sickness categories: regular overtime decreases sickness absenteeism, but increases sickness presenteeism. Conclusions: Two work-related sickness categories, absenteeism and presenteeism, are counterparts. However, the explanations for their prevalence point to different factors.


Lehto E.,Labour Institute for Economic Research
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

This study focuses, firstly, on the pricing of electricity in the Finnish retail market. In particular, the impact of the ownership structure on prices is tested empirically. Secondly, the influence of low-cost electricity sources on retail prices is considered. The question about whether the average fuel costs rather than the wholesale price determine the retail prices is thus addressed. The supply side behaviour characterised may explain the passivity of client activity in the seemingly competitive Finnish market. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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