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Kanninen O.,Labour Institute for Economic Research | Karhula A.,University of Turku

The human sex ratio at birth (SRB) is approximately 107 boys for every 100 girls. SRB was rising until the World War II and has been declining slightly after the 1950s in several industrial countries. Recent studies have shown that SRB varies according to exposure to disasters and socioeconomic conditions. However, it remains unknown whether changes in SRB can be explained by observable macro-level socioeconomic variables across multiple years and countries. Here we show that changes in disposable income at the macro level positively predict SRB in OECD countries. A one standard deviation increase in the change of disposable income is associated with an increase of 1.03 male births per 1000 female births. The relationship is possibly nonlinear and driven by extreme changes. The association varies from country to country being particular strong in Estonia. This is the first evidence to show that economic and social conditions are connected to SRB across countries at the macro level. This calls for further research on the effects of societal conditions on general characteristics at birth. © 2016 Kanninen, Karhula. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Lehto E.,Labour Institute for Economic Research
Energy Policy

This study focuses, firstly, on the pricing of electricity in the Finnish retail market. In particular, the impact of the ownership structure on prices is tested empirically. Secondly, the influence of low-cost electricity sources on retail prices is considered. The question about whether the average fuel costs rather than the wholesale price determine the retail prices is thus addressed. The supply side behaviour characterised may explain the passivity of client activity in the seemingly competitive Finnish market. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Bockerman P.,Labour Institute for Economic Research and IZA | Hyytinen A.,University of Jyvaskyla | Maczulskij T.,Labour Institute for Economic Research
Preventive Medicine

Objectives: To examine whether alcohol consumption in adulthood is related to the incidence of receiving a disability pension later in life. Methods: Twin data for Finnish men and women born before 1958 were matched to register-based individual information on disability pensions. Twin differences were used to eliminate both shared environmental and genetic factors. The quantity of alcohol consumption was measured as the weekly average consumption using self-reported data from three surveys (1975, 1981 and 1990). The disability pension data were evaluated from 1990-2004. Results: The models that account for shared environmental and genetic factors reveal that heavy drinkers are significantly more likely to receive a disability pension than moderate drinkers or constant abstainers. Heavy drinking that leads to passing out is also positively related to receiving a disability pension. The results were robust to the use of potential confounders that twins do not share, such as education years, the number of chronic diseases, physical activity at work and leisure, and stressful life events. Conclusion: Drinking profiles in early adulthood are an important predictor of receiving a disability pension later in life. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Bockerman P.,Labour Institute for Economic Research | Laukkanen E.,Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

Objective: To examine the predictors of sickness presenteeism in comparison with sickness absenteeism. The article focuses on the effects of working time match and efficiency demands and differentiates the estimates by a respondent's self-assessed health. Methods: We use survey data covering 884 Finnish trade union members in 2009. We estimate logistic regression models. All models include control variables such as the sector of the economy and the type of contract. Results: Working time match between desired and actual weekly working hours reduces both sickness absence and presenteeism for those workers who have poor health. We also find that efficiency demands increase presenteeism for those workers who have good health. Conclusions: The effects of working time match and efficiency demands on the prevalence of sickness absence and presenteeism are strongly conditional on a worker's self-assessed health level. Copyright © 2010 by American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Source

Bockerman P.,Labour Institute for Economic Research | Laukkanen E.,Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions
European Journal of Public Health

Background: Sickness absenteeism has been a focus of the EU Labour Force Surveys since the early 1970s. In contrast, sickness presenteeism is a newcomer. Based on surveys, this concept emerged in the empirical literature as late as the 1990s. Knowledge of the determinants of sickness presenteeism is still relatively sparse. Methods: The article examines the prevalence of sickness presenteeism in comparison with sickness absenteeism, using survey data covering 725 Finnish union members in 2008. We estimate logit models. The predictor variables capture working-time arrangements and the rules at the workplace. We include control variables such as the sector of the economy and educational attainment. Results: Controlling for worker characteristics, we find that sickness presenteeism is much more sensitive to working-time arrangements than sickness absenteeism is. Permanent full-time work, mismatch between desired and actual working hours, shift or period work and overlong working weeks increase sickness presenteeism. We also find an interesting trade-off between sickness categories: regular overtime decreases sickness absenteeism, but increases sickness presenteeism. Conclusions: Two work-related sickness categories, absenteeism and presenteeism, are counterparts. However, the explanations for their prevalence point to different factors. Source

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