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Airaines, France

Savoire R.,TIMR | LazoGBR M.-A.,TIMR | LazoGBR M.-A.,Compiegne University of Technology | Van-Hecke E.,TIMR | And 7 more authors.
OCL - Oilseeds and fats

Effect of environmental factors and cultivar on linseed composition and subsequent oil expression has been studied. Ten linseed cultivars were grown in two different location (north and south of FRA) during years 2011, 2012 and 2013. Every year have been characterized in terms of pluviometry, sunshine hours and degree days, each climatic factor has been cumulated from flowering to harvest. A strong impact of cultivar on oil, C18:3 and starch content has been noticed whereas the growing location has only affected the starch and lipid contents. Year effect have been recorded on proteins, oil and C18:3 content. A principal component analysis has highlighted the correlation between the pluviometry and the C18:3 content. Oil content have not presented any correlation with environmental or composition factors. Oil expression using the seeds previously characterized has exhibited a strong correlation between C18:3 content and oil yield. No correlation between oil yield and other composition parameters has been observed. The analysis of variance conducted on yield has emphasized that yield variation was majority attributable to a year effect. © 2015 R. Savoire et al. Source

Quero A.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Molinie R.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Elboutachfaiti R.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Petit E.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Plant Physiology

Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is grown for its oil and its fiber. This crop, cultivated in temperate regions, has seen a renewed interest due to the presence of abundant molecules of interest for many applications. Little information is available about the behavior of flax during osmotic stress; yet this is considered a major stress that causes significant yield losses in most crops. To control the presence of this stress better, flax behavior was investigated following the application of osmotic stress and the response was examined by applying increasing concentrations of PEG 8000. This resulted in the reorganization of 32 metabolites and 6 mineral ions in the leaves. The analysis of these two types of solute highlighted the contrasting behavior between a higher metabolite content (particularly fructose, glucose and proline) and a decrease in mineral ions (especially nitrate and potassium) following PEG treatment. However, this reorganization did not lead to a greater accumulation of solutes, with the total amount remaining unchanged in leaves during osmotic stress. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. Source

Fenart S.,University of Lille Nord de France | Ndong Y.A.,EA 3900 BioPI | Duarte J.,Biogemma | Riviere N.,Biogemma | And 11 more authors.
BMC Genomics

Background: Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) has been cultivated for around 9,000 years and is therefore one of the oldest cultivated species. Today, flax is still grown for its oil (oil-flax or linseed cultivars) and its cellulose-rich fibres (fibre-flax cultivars) used for high-value linen garments and composite materials. Despite the wide industrial use of flax-derived products, and our actual understanding of the regulation of both wood fibre production and oil biosynthesis more information must be acquired in both domains. Recent advances in genomics are now providing opportunities to improve our fundamental knowledge of these complex processes. In this paper we report the development and validation of a high-density oligo microarray platform dedicated to gene expression analyses in flax.Results: Nine different RNA samples obtained from flax inner- and outer-stems, seeds, leaves and roots were used to generate a collection of 1,066,481 ESTs by massive parallel pyrosequencing. Sequences were assembled into 59,626 unigenes and 48,021 sequences were selected for oligo design and high-density microarray (Nimblegen 385K) fabrication with eight, non-overlapping 25-mers oligos per unigene. 18 independent experiments were used to evaluate the hybridization quality, precision, specificity and accuracy and all results confirmed the high technical quality of our microarray platform. Cross-validation of microarray data was carried out using quantitative qRT-PCR. Nine target genes were selected on the basis of microarray results and reflected the whole range of fold change (both up-regulated and down-regulated genes in different samples). A statistically significant positive correlation was obtained comparing expression levels for each target gene across all biological replicates both in qRT-PCR and microarray results. Further experiments illustrated the capacity of our arrays to detect differential gene expression in a variety of flax tissues as well as between two contrasted flax varieties.Conclusion: All results suggest that our high-density flax oligo-microarray platform can be used as a very sensitive tool for analyzing gene expression in a large variety of tissues as well as in different cultivars. Moreover, this highly reliable platform can also be used for the quantification of mRNA transcriptional profiling in different flax tissues. © 2010 Fenart et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Quero A.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Fliniaux O.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Elboutachfaiti R.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Petit E.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | And 4 more authors.

β-Aminobutyric acid (BABA) is a non-protein amino acid that induces drought tolerance in plants. The mechanisms involved in this tolerance are still poorly understood. In the present study, metabolomic and ionomic profiling performed in flax (Linum usitatissimum) leaves revealed that BABA induces a major reorganization in solute content. This reorganization resulted in increased accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates and proline and a decrease in inorganic solutes. This response has high similarities with that obtained when flax is exposed to an osmotic stress. BABA treatment also induced a decrease in osmotic potential and a change in water status of flax leaves. These modifications are accompanied by an improvement in drought tolerance. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Chantreau M.,University of Lille Nord de France | Chantreau M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Grec S.,University of Lille Nord de France | Grec S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 18 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology

Background: Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an economically important fiber and oil crop that has been grown for thousands of years. The genome has been recently sequenced and transcriptomics are providing information on candidate genes potentially related to agronomically-important traits. In order to accelerate functional characterization of these genes we have generated a flax EMS mutant population that can be used as a TILLinG (Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes) platform for forward and reverse genetics. Results: A population of 4,894 M2 mutant seed families was generated using 3 different EMS concentrations (0.3%, 0.6% and 0.75%) and used to produce M2 plants for subsequent phenotyping and DNA extraction. 10,839 viable M2 plants (4,033 families) were obtained and 1,552 families (38.5%) showed a visual developmental phenotype (stem size and diameter, plant architecture, flower-related). The majority of these families showed more than one phenotype. Mutant phenotype data are organised in a database and can be accessed and searched at UTILLdb (http://urgv.evry.inra.fr/UTILLdb). Preliminary screens were also performed for atypical fiber and seed phenotypes. Genomic DNA was extracted from 3,515 M2 families and eight-fold pooled for subsequent mutant detection by ENDO1 nuclease mis-match cleavage. In order to validate the collection for reverse genetics, DNA pools were screened for two genes coding enzymes of the lignin biosynthesis pathway: Coumarate-3-Hydroxylase (C3H) and Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase (CAD). We identified 79 and 76 mutations in the C3H and CAD genes, respectively. The average mutation rate was calculated as 1/41 Kb giving rise to approximately 9,000 mutations per genome. Thirty-five out of the 52 flax cad mutant families containing missense or codon stop mutations showed the typical orange-brown xylem phenotype observed in CAD down-regulated/mutant plants in other species. Conclusions: We have developed a flax mutant population that can be used as an efficient forward and reverse genetics tool. The collection has an extremely high mutation rate that enables the detection of large numbers of independant mutant families by screening a comparatively low number of M2 families. The population will prove to be a valuable resource for both fundamental research and the identification of agronomically-important genes for crop improvement in flax. © 2013 Chantreau et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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