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Dhaka, Bangladesh

Bhuiyan M.S.,Monash University | Sayeed M.A.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research icddr | Khanam F.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research icddr | Leung D.T.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research icddr | And 11 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2014

We assessed interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) responses via enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) to a number of S. Typhi antigens in samples from humans with S. Typhi bacteremia and typhoid fever in Bangladesh. Compared with responses in healthy endemic zone controls, there were significantly increased IFN-γ responses at the time of clinical presentation (acute phase) and at convalescence 14-28 days later. The majority (80-90%) of IFN-γ expressing T cells were CD4+. We observed a significant increase in interleukin-17 (IL-17) positive CD4 + T cells at convalescent versus acute stage of infection using an intracellular cytokine staining assay. We also found that stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) produced significantly increased levels of a number of cytokines at the convalescent versus acute phase of infection, including IFN-γ, MIP-1β, sCD40L, TNF-β, IL-13, and IL-9. These results suggest that S. Typhi antigens induce a predominantly Th1 response, but that elevations in other cytokines may be modulatory. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Huq S.,ICDDR | Pietroni M.A.,Dhaka Hospital | Rahman H.,Laboratory science Division | Alam M.T.,Dhaka Hospital
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition | Year: 2010

A 12-year old girl was brought to the Dhaka Hospital of ICDDR,B with diarrhoea. Incidentally, the parents provided a history of repeated episodes of pallor and jaundice since she was two and half years old. Three of her family members had similar problems. History, clinical examination, and laboratory findings of the girl and her family members suggested a case of hereditary spherocytosis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a case in Bangladesh. © International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.

Huq M.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research | Chawdhury F.A.H.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research | Chawdhury F.A.H.,University of Manitoba | Mitra D.K.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of STD and AIDS | Year: 2010

The prevalence of bacterial sexually transmitted infections among clients of female sex workers (FSWs) was studied. A total of 156 condoms were collected from clients of 13 sex workers during three consecutive days. Condoms used by clients of FSWs were collected and DNA was extracted from the seminal fluid and used for the diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis by polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis and T. vaginalis among clients of FSWs was 4.5% (7/156), 2.5% (4/156) and 7% (11/156), respectively.

Ahmed M.U.,Laboratory science Division | Ahmed M.U.,Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission | Chawdhury F.A.H.,Laboratory science Division | Chawdhury F.A.H.,University of Manitoba | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition | Year: 2010

Gonorrhoea is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in developing countries, and the emergence of resistance to antimicrobial agents in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major obstacle in the control of gonorrhoea. Periodical monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae is essential for the early detection of emergence of drug resistance. In total, 1,767 gonococcal strains isolated from males and females (general population and those with high-risk behaviour) from different parts of Bangladesh were studied during 1997-2006. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, spectinomycin, and azithromycin for the isolates were determined by the agar dilution method. Isolates resistant to three or more antimicrobial agents are considered multidrug-resistant. The prevalence of plasmid-mediated penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG) and plasmid-mediated tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae (TRNG) was determined. Nine percent of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin in 1997 compared to 87% in 2006. Multidrug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae have emerged in 1997, and 44% of the strains (n=66) isolated during 2006 were multidrug-resistant. Forty-two percent of the isolates in 2006 were both PPNG-and TRNG-positive compared to none in 1997. The rapidly-changing pattern of gonococcal antimicrobial susceptibility warrants the need for an antimicrobial susceptibilitymonitoring programme, and periodical analysis and dissemination of susceptibility data are essential to guide clinicians and for successful STI/HIV intervention programmes. © International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.

Sayem M.A.,Laboratory science Division | Sayem M.A.,Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University | Ahmad S.M.,Laboratory science Division | Rekha R.S.,Laboratory science Division | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition | Year: 2011

Shigella dysenteriae type 1 causes devastating epidemics in developing countries with high case-fatality rates in all age-groups. The aim of the study was to compare host immune responses to epidemic (T2218) and endemic strains of S. dysenteriae type 1. Shigellacidal activity of serum from rabbits immunized with epidemic or endemic strains, S. dysenteriae type 1-infected patients, and healthy adult controls from Shigellaendemic and non-endemic regions was measured. Immunogenic cross-reactivity of antibodies against Shigella antigens was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Oxidative burst and phagocytic responses of monocytes and neutrophils to selected S. dysenteriae type 1 strains were assessed by flow cytometry. Rabbit antisera against epidemic strain were less effective in killing heterologous bacteria compared to endemic antisera (p=0.0002). Patients showed an increased serum shigellacidal response after two weeks of onset of diarrhoea compared to the acute stage (3-4 days after onset) against their respective homologous strains; the response against T2218 and heterologous endemic S. dysenteriae type 1 strains was not significant. The serum shigellacidal response against all the S. dysenteriae type 1 strains was similar among healthy controls from endemic and non-endemic regions and was comparable with the acute stage response by patients. Compared to endemic strains of S. dysenteriae type 1, T2218 was significantly resistant to phagocytosis by both monocytes and neutrophils. No obvious differences were obtained in the induction of oxidative burst activity and cathelicidin-mediated killing. Cross-reactivity of antibody against antigens present in the epidemic and endemic strains showed some differences in protein/peptide complexity and intensity by Western blot analysis. In summary, epidemic T2218 strain was more resistant to antibody-mediated defenses, namely phagocytosis and shigellacidal activity, compared to endemic S. dysenteriae type 1 strains. Part of this variation may be attributed to the differential complexity of protein/peptide antigens. © International Centre For Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.

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