Dhaka, Bangladesh
Dhaka, Bangladesh

Time filter

Source Type

Ahmed M.U.,Laboratory science Division | Ahmed M.U.,Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission | Chawdhury F.A.H.,Laboratory science Division | Chawdhury F.A.H.,University of Manitoba | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition | Year: 2010

Gonorrhoea is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in developing countries, and the emergence of resistance to antimicrobial agents in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major obstacle in the control of gonorrhoea. Periodical monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae is essential for the early detection of emergence of drug resistance. In total, 1,767 gonococcal strains isolated from males and females (general population and those with high-risk behaviour) from different parts of Bangladesh were studied during 1997-2006. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, spectinomycin, and azithromycin for the isolates were determined by the agar dilution method. Isolates resistant to three or more antimicrobial agents are considered multidrug-resistant. The prevalence of plasmid-mediated penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG) and plasmid-mediated tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae (TRNG) was determined. Nine percent of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin in 1997 compared to 87% in 2006. Multidrug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae have emerged in 1997, and 44% of the strains (n=66) isolated during 2006 were multidrug-resistant. Forty-two percent of the isolates in 2006 were both PPNG-and TRNG-positive compared to none in 1997. The rapidly-changing pattern of gonococcal antimicrobial susceptibility warrants the need for an antimicrobial susceptibilitymonitoring programme, and periodical analysis and dissemination of susceptibility data are essential to guide clinicians and for successful STI/HIV intervention programmes. © International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.


Bhuiyan M.S.,Monash University | Sayeed M.A.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research Icddr | Khanam F.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research Icddr | Leung D.T.,International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research Icddr | And 11 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2014

We assessed interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) responses via enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) to a number of S. Typhi antigens in samples from humans with S. Typhi bacteremia and typhoid fever in Bangladesh. Compared with responses in healthy endemic zone controls, there were significantly increased IFN-γ responses at the time of clinical presentation (acute phase) and at convalescence 14-28 days later. The majority (80-90%) of IFN-γ expressing T cells were CD4+. We observed a significant increase in interleukin-17 (IL-17) positive CD4 + T cells at convalescent versus acute stage of infection using an intracellular cytokine staining assay. We also found that stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) produced significantly increased levels of a number of cytokines at the convalescent versus acute phase of infection, including IFN-γ, MIP-1β, sCD40L, TNF-β, IL-13, and IL-9. These results suggest that S. Typhi antigens induce a predominantly Th1 response, but that elevations in other cytokines may be modulatory. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.


Huq S.,ICDDR | Pietroni M.A.,Dhaka Hospital | Rahman H.,Laboratory science Division | Alam M.T.,Dhaka Hospital
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition | Year: 2010

A 12-year old girl was brought to the Dhaka Hospital of ICDDR,B with diarrhoea. Incidentally, the parents provided a history of repeated episodes of pallor and jaundice since she was two and half years old. Three of her family members had similar problems. History, clinical examination, and laboratory findings of the girl and her family members suggested a case of hereditary spherocytosis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a case in Bangladesh. © International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.


Khan S.I.,Laboratory science Division | Ahmed A.K.M.,Laboratory science Division | Yunus M.,Public Health science Division | Rahman M.,Public Health science Division | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition | Year: 2010

Arsenic contamination of tubewell water is a major public-health problem in Bangladesh. In the recent years, the use of shallow and deep tubewell water for irrigation and the use of excess amount of cheap fertilizers and pesticides containing cadmium pose a serious threat of contamination of arsenic and cadmium in food. In an exploratory study, arsenic and cadmium were measured in foods from Matlab, a rural area in Bangladesh, that is extensively affected by arsenic and the economy is agriculture-based. Raw and cooked food samples were collected from village homes (households, n=13) and analyzed to quantify concentrations of arsenic and cadmium using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Washing rice with water before cooking reduced the concentration of arsenic in raw rice by 13-15%. Rice, when cooked with excess water discarded, showed a significant decrease in arsenic concentration compared to that cooked without discarding the water (p<0.001). In contrast, concentration of cadmium did not decrease in cooked rice after discarding water. Cooked rice with discarded water had significantly lower concentration of arsenic compared to raw rice (p=0.002). Raw rice had higher concentration of arsenic compared to raw vegetables (p<0.001); however, no such difference was found for cadmium. Compared to raw vegetables (e.g. arum), concentration of arsenic increased significantly (p=0.024) when cooked with arsenic-contaminated water. Thus, the practice of discarding excess water while cooking rice reduces the concentration of arsenic but not of cadmium in cooked rice. However, water generally not discarded when cooking vegetables to avoid loss of micronutrients consequently retains arsenic. The results suggest that arsenic and cadmium have entered the food-chain of Bangladesh, and the cooking practices influence the concentration of arsenic but not of cadmium in cooked food. © International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.


Sayem M.A.,Laboratory science Division | Sayem M.A.,Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University | Ahmad S.M.,Laboratory science Division | Rekha R.S.,Laboratory science Division | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition | Year: 2011

Shigella dysenteriae type 1 causes devastating epidemics in developing countries with high case-fatality rates in all age-groups. The aim of the study was to compare host immune responses to epidemic (T2218) and endemic strains of S. dysenteriae type 1. Shigellacidal activity of serum from rabbits immunized with epidemic or endemic strains, S. dysenteriae type 1-infected patients, and healthy adult controls from Shigellaendemic and non-endemic regions was measured. Immunogenic cross-reactivity of antibodies against Shigella antigens was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Oxidative burst and phagocytic responses of monocytes and neutrophils to selected S. dysenteriae type 1 strains were assessed by flow cytometry. Rabbit antisera against epidemic strain were less effective in killing heterologous bacteria compared to endemic antisera (p=0.0002). Patients showed an increased serum shigellacidal response after two weeks of onset of diarrhoea compared to the acute stage (3-4 days after onset) against their respective homologous strains; the response against T2218 and heterologous endemic S. dysenteriae type 1 strains was not significant. The serum shigellacidal response against all the S. dysenteriae type 1 strains was similar among healthy controls from endemic and non-endemic regions and was comparable with the acute stage response by patients. Compared to endemic strains of S. dysenteriae type 1, T2218 was significantly resistant to phagocytosis by both monocytes and neutrophils. No obvious differences were obtained in the induction of oxidative burst activity and cathelicidin-mediated killing. Cross-reactivity of antibody against antigens present in the epidemic and endemic strains showed some differences in protein/peptide complexity and intensity by Western blot analysis. In summary, epidemic T2218 strain was more resistant to antibody-mediated defenses, namely phagocytosis and shigellacidal activity, compared to endemic S. dysenteriae type 1 strains. Part of this variation may be attributed to the differential complexity of protein/peptide antigens. © International Centre For Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.


Huq M.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research | Chawdhury F.A.H.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research | Chawdhury F.A.H.,University of Manitoba | Mitra D.K.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of STD and AIDS | Year: 2010

The prevalence of bacterial sexually transmitted infections among clients of female sex workers (FSWs) was studied. A total of 156 condoms were collected from clients of 13 sex workers during three consecutive days. Condoms used by clients of FSWs were collected and DNA was extracted from the seminal fluid and used for the diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis by polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis and T. vaginalis among clients of FSWs was 4.5% (7/156), 2.5% (4/156) and 7% (11/156), respectively.


PubMed | Laboratory science Division
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of health, population, and nutrition | Year: 2010

Despite the national vitamin A and antihelminthic prophylaxis programmes, both intestinal geohelminths and subclinical vitamin A deficiency continue to be prevalent among children in developing countries. Studies on potential synergistic effects of vitamin A supplementation and deworming on retinol status have inconsistent results. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impacts of low-dose beta-carotene supplementation and antihelminthic therapy on serum retinol and beta-carotene concentrations in preschool children of Bangladesh. Two hundred and forty-four children, known to be infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, were randomized into four treatment groups: I-IV. Group I and II received two oral doses of 400 mg of albendazole each, the first dose at baseline and the second dose after four months; Group III and IV received placebo in place of albendazole. In addition, Group I and III received 1.2 mg of beta-carotene powder in capsule daily for six months, and Group II and IV received placebo in place of beta-carotene. Serum retinol and beta-carotene levels were measured before and after six months of the interventions. Serum retinol and beta-carotene increased significantly in Group I where both antihelminthic therapy and daily beta-carotene supplementation were given (p<0.05 and p<0.001 respectively). Antihelminthic therapy alone only improved serum beta-carotene concentration (p<0.0001). Low-dose beta-carotene supplementation, along with an antihelminthic therapy, synergistically improved vitamin A status. This finding has public-health implications for improving vitamin A status of children in developing countries.


PubMed | Laboratory science Division
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of health, population, and nutrition | Year: 2010

Gonorrhoea is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in developing countries, and the emergence of resistance to antimicrobial agents in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major obstacle in the control of gonorrhoea. Periodical monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae is essential for the early detection of emergence of drug resistance. In total, 1,767 gonococcal strains isolated from males and females (general population and those with high-risk behaviour) from different parts of Bangladesh were studied during 1997-2006. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, spectinomycin, and azithromycin for the isolates were determined by the agar dilution method. Isolates resistant to three or more antimicrobial agents are considered multidrug-resistant. The prevalence of plasmid-mediated penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG) and plasmid-mediated tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae (TRNG) was determined. Nine percent of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin in 1997 compared to 87% in 2006. Multidrug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae have emerged in 1997, and 44% of the strains (n = 66) isolated during 2006 were multidrug-resistant. Forty-two percent of the isolates in 2006 were both PPNG- and TRNG-positive compared to none in 1997. The rapidly-changing pattern of gonococcal antimicrobial susceptibility warrants the need for an antimicrobial susceptibility-monitoring programme, and periodical analysis and dissemination of susceptibility data are essential to guide clinicians and for successful STI/HIV intervention programmes.


PubMed | Laboratory science Division
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of health, population, and nutrition | Year: 2011

Arsenic contamination of tubewell water is a major public-health problem in Bangladesh. In the recent years, the use of shallow and deep tubewell water for irrigation and the use of excess amount of cheap fertilizers and pesticides containing cadmium pose a serious threat of contamination of arsenic and cadmium in food. In an exploratory study, arsenic and cadmium were measured in foods from Matlab, a rural area in Bangladesh, that is extensively affected by arsenic and the economy is agriculture-based. Raw and cooked food samples were collected from village homes (households, n=13) and analyzed to quantify concentrations of arsenic and cadmium using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Washing rice with water before cooking reduced the concentration of arsenic in raw rice by 13-15%. Rice, when cooked with excess water discarded, showed a significant decrease in arsenic concentration compared to that cooked without discarding the water (p<0.001). In contrast, concentration of cadmium did not decrease in cooked rice after discarding water. Cooked rice with discarded water had significantly lower concentration of arsenic compared to raw rice (p=0.002). Raw rice had higher concentration of arsenic compared to raw vegetables (p<0.001); however, no such difference was found for cadmium. Compared to raw vegetables (e.g. arum), concentration of arsenic increased significantly (p=0.024) when cooked with arsenic-contaminated water. Thus, the practice of discarding excess water while cooking rice reduces the concentration of arsenic but not of cadmium in cooked rice. However, water generally not discarded when cooking vegetables to avoid loss of micronutrients consequently retains arsenic. The results suggest that arsenic and cadmium have entered the food-chain of Bangladesh, and the cooking practices influence the concentration of arsenic but not of cadmium in cooked food.

Loading Laboratory science Division collaborators
Loading Laboratory science Division collaborators