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Minchiotti L.,University of Pavia | Galliano M.,University of Pavia | Caridi G.,Laboratory on Pathophysiology of Uremia | Kragh-Hansen U.,University of Aarhus
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2013

Background DNA and mRNA sequencing of the coding regions of the human albumin gene (ALB) and of its intron/exon junctions has revealed twenty-one different molecular defects causing congenital analbuminaemia (CAA). Scope of review To describe the mutations in molecular terms and to present the current knowledge about the most important biochemical and clinical effects of CAA. Major conclusions CAA is rare, but its frequency seems to be significantly higher in restricted and minimally admixed populations. The condition affects especially the lipid metabolism but apart from a possible increased risk for atherosclerotic complications, it is generally associated with mild clinical symptoms in adults. By contrast, several reports indicate that analbuminaemic individuals may be at risk during the perinatal and childhood periods, in which they seem to show increased morbidity and mortality. The twenty-one causative defects include seven nonsense mutations, seven changes affecting splicing, five frame-shift/deletions, one frame-shift/insertion and one mutation in the start codon. These results indicate that the trait is an allelic heterogeneous disorder caused by homozygous (nineteen cases) or compound heterozygous (single case) inheritance of defects. Most mutations are unique, but one, named Kayseri, is responsible for about half of the known cases. General significance Study of the defects in the ALB resulting in CAA allows the identification of "hot spot" regions and contributes to understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the trait. Such studies could also give molecular information about different aspects of ALB regulation and shed light on the regulatory mechanisms involved in the synthesis of the protein. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Serum Albumin. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Bruschi M.,Dialysis and Transplantation | Santucci L.,Dialysis and Transplantation | Candiano G.,Dialysis and Transplantation | Ghiggeri G.M.,Laboratory on Pathophysiology of Uremia
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2013

Background Serum albumin is a micro-heterogeneous protein composed of at least 40 isoforms. Its heterogeneity is even more pronounced in biological fluids other than serum, the major being urine and cerebrospinal fluid. Modification 'in situ' and/or selectivity of biological barriers, such as in the kidney, determines the final composition of albumin and may help in definition of inflammatory states. Scope of review This review focuses on various aspects of albumin heterogeneity in low 'abundance fluids' and highlights the potential source of information in diseases. Major conclusions The electrical charge of the protein in urine and CSF is modified but with an opposite change and depending on clinical conditions. In normal urine, the bulk of albumin is more anionic than in serum for the presence of ten times more fatty acids that introduce equivalent anionic charges and modify hydrophobicity of the protein. At the same time, urinary albumin is more glycosylated compared to the serum homolog. Finally, albumin fragments can be detected in urine in patients with proteinuria. For albumin in CSF, we lack information relative to normal conditions since ethical problems do not allow normal CSF to be studied. In multiple sclerosis, the albumin charge in CSF is more cationic than in serum, this change possibly involving structural anomalies or small molecules bindings. General significance Massively fatty albumin could be toxic for tubular cells and be eliminated on this basis. Renal handling of glycosylated albumin can alter the normal equilibrium of filtration/reabsorption and trigger mechanisms leading to glomerulosclerosis and tubulo-interstitial fibrosis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Serum Albumin. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Righetti P.G.,Polytechnic of Milan | Candiano G.,Laboratory on Pathophysiology of Uremia
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2011

The four classical modes of electrophoresis of protein molecules (sodium dodecyl sulphate electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, isoelectric focusing, IEF, and immobilized pH gradients, IPGs, two-dimensional maps, 2D, and capillary electrophoresis, CE) are here reviewed, with special emphasis on recent innovations. Thus, in the case of SDS-PAGE, a novel method, consisting in focusing SDS-protein micelles against a gradient of cationic charges grafted onto a polyacrylamide gel is presented. In the case of IEF, the recent decoding of the structure, polydispersity, molecular mass distribution and buffering properties of the soluble carrier ampholyte buffers are here discussed. In regard to two dimensional mapping, recent instrumentation for performing 2D maps in horizontal, large gel slabs (up to 30. cm. ×. 40. cm) and in a radial format for the SDS dimension is here evaluated. Finally, in the case of CE, three major applications are presented: a thorough study of capillary IEF and of all experimental variables, a method of importance in screening of rDNA products; the possibility of running proteins and peptide separations in very acidic, amphoteric, isoelectric buffers in absence of any capillary coating; finally, the possibility of producing a facile, user friendly, covalent coating of the wall silanols via bonding of quaternarized piperazines endowed with an iodinated tail. In acidic, volatile buffers, such protein/peptide runs can be directly interfaced with mass spectrometry instrumentation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Prunotto M.,Laboratory on Pathophysiology of Uremia | Carnevali M.L.,Nephrology and Health science | Candiano G.,Laboratory on Pathophysiology of Uremia | Murtas C.,Nephrology and Health science | And 12 more authors.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2010

Glomerular targets of autoimmunity in human membranous nephropathy are poorly understood. Here, we used a combined proteomic approach to identify specific antibodies against podocyte proteins in both serum and glomeruli of patients with membranous nephropathy (MN). We detected specific anti-aldose reductase (AR) and anti-manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) IgG4 in sera of patients with MN. We also eluted high titers of anti-AR and anti-SOD2 IgG4 from microdissected glomeruli of three biopsies of MN kidneys but not from biopsies of other glomerulonephritides characterized by IgG deposition (five lupus nephritis and two membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis). We identified both antigens in MN biopsies but not in other renal pathologies or normal kidney. Confocal and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) showed co-localization of anti-AR and anti-SOD2 with IgG4 and C5b-9 in electron-dense podocyte immune deposits. Preliminary in vitro experiments showed an increase of SOD2 expression on podocyte plasma membrane after treatment with hydrogen peroxide. In conclusion, our data support AR and SOD2 as renal antigens of human MN and suggest that oxidative stress may drive glomerular SOD2 expression. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society of Nephrology. Source

Bruschi M.,Laboratory on Pathophysiology of Uremia | Candiano G.,Dialysis and Transplantation | Santucci L.,Laboratory on Pathophysiology of Uremia | Ghiggeri G.M.,Dialysis and Transplantation
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2013

Background Proteins are extremely reactive to oxidants and should represent a potential target of instable reactive oxygen. This may represent a problem for plasma proteins since they may be directly modified in vivo in a compartment where antioxidant enzymatic systems are scarcely represented. On the other hand, it is possible that some plasma components have evolved over time to guarantee protection, in which case they can be considered as anti-oxidants. Scope of review To present and discuss main studies which addressed the role of albumin in plasma antioxidant activity mainly utilizing in vitro models of oxidation. To present some advances on structural features of oxidized albumin deriving from studies carried out on in vitro models as well as albumin purified in vivo from patients affected by clinical conditions characterized by oxidative stress. Major conclusions There are different interaction with HOCl and chloramines. In the former case, HOCl produces an extensive alteration of 238Trp and 162Tyr, 425Tyr, 47Tyr, while thiol groups are only partially involved. Chloramines are extremely reactive with the unique free SH group of albumin (34Cys) with the formation of sulfenic and sulfinic acid as intermediates and sulfonic acid as end-product. Oxidized albumin has a modified electrical charge for the addition of an acidic residue and presents α-helix and random coil reorganization with subtle changes in domain orientation. General significance Albumin, is the major antioxidants in plasma with a concentration (0.8 mM) higher than other antioxidants by an exponential factor. Functional and protective roles in the presence of oxidative stress must be defined. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Serum Albumin. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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